Articles by Terianne M. Wong in JoVE
Expression and Purification of Virus-like Particles for Vaccination Maria T. Arevalo1, Terianne M. Wong1, Ted M. Ross1 1Center for Vaccines and Immunology, Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia Here, we present a protocol for synthesizing virus-like particles using either baculovirus or mammalian expression systems, and ultracentrifugation purification. This highly customizable approach is used to identify viral antigens as vaccine targets in a safe and flexible manner.
Other articles by Terianne M. Wong on PubMed
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Infection in Elderly Mice Results in Altered Antiviral Gene Expression and Enhanced Pathology PloS One. 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24558422 Elderly persons are more susceptible to RSV-induced pneumonia than young people, but the molecular mechanism underlying this susceptibility is not well understood. In this study, we used an aged mouse model of RSV-induced pneumonia to examine how aging alters the lung pathology, modulates antiviral gene expressions, and the production of inflammatory cytokines in response to RSV infection. Young (2-3 months) and aged (19-21 months) mice were intranasally infected with mucogenic or non-mucogenic RSV strains, lung histology was examined, and gene expression was analyzed. Upon infection with mucogenic strains of RSV, leukocyte infiltration in the airways was elevated and prolonged in aged mice compared to young mice. Minitab factorial analysis identified several antiviral genes that are influenced by age, infection, and a combination of both factors. The expression of five antiviral genes, including pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and osteopontin (OPN), was altered by both age and infection, while age was associated with the expression of 15 antiviral genes. Both kinetics and magnitude of antiviral gene expression were diminished as a result of older age. In addition to delays in cytokine signaling and pattern recognition receptor induction, we found TLR7/8 signaling to be impaired in alveolar macrophages in aged mice. In vivo, induction of IL-1β and OPN were delayed but prolonged in aged mice upon RSV infection compared to young. In conclusion, this study demonstrates inherent differences in response to RSV infection in young vs. aged mice, accompanied by delayed antiviral gene induction and cytokine signaling.
Use of Computational and Recombinant Technologies for Developing Novel Influenza Vaccines Expert Review of Vaccines. 2016 | Pubmed ID: 26595182 Influenza vaccine design has changed considerably with advancements in bioinformatics and computational biology. Improved surveillance efforts provide up-to-date information about influenza sequence diversity and assist with monitoring the spread of epidemics and vaccine efficacy rates. The advent of next-generation sequencing, epitope scanning and high-throughput analysis all help decipher influenza-associated protein interactions as well as predict immune responsiveness based on host genetic diversity. Computational approaches are utilized in nearly all aspects of vaccine design, from modeling, compatibility predictions, and optimization of antigens in various platforms. This overview discusses how computational techniques strengthen vaccine efforts against highly diverse influenza species.
Delta Inulin-derived Adjuvants That Elicit Th1 Phenotype Following Vaccination Reduces Respiratory Syncytial Virus Lung Titers Without a Reduction in Lung Immunopathology Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. May, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 27215855 Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a significant cause of lower respiratory tract infections resulting in bronchiolitis and even mortality in the elderly and young children/infants. Despite the impact of this virus on human health, no licensed vaccine exists. Unlike many other viral infections, RSV infection or vaccination does not induce durable protective antibodies in humans. In order to elicit high titer, neutralizing antibodies against RSV, we investigated the use of the adjuvant Advax™, a novel polysaccharide adjuvant based on delta inulin microparticles, to enhance antibody titers following vaccination. BALB/c mice were vaccinated intramuscularly with live RSV as a vaccine antigen in combination with one of two formulations of Advax™. Advax-1 was comprised of the standard delta inulin adjuvant and Advax-2 was formulated delta inulin plus CpG oligodendronucleotides (ODNs). An additional group of mice were either mock vaccinated, immunized with vaccine only, or administered vaccine plus Imject Alum. Following 3 vaccinations, mice had neutralizing antibody titers that correlated with reduction in viral titers in the lungs. Advax-1 significantly enhanced serum RSV-specific IgG1 levels at week 6 indicative of a Th2 response, similar to titers in mice administered vaccine plus Imject Alum. In contrast, mice vaccinated with vaccine plus Advax-2 had predominately IgG2a titers indicative of a Th1 response that was maintained during the entire study. Interestingly, regardless of which Advax(TM) adjuvant was used, the neutralizing titers were similar between groups, but the viral lung titers were significantly lower (∼10E+3pfu/g) in mice administered vaccine with either Advax(TM) adjuvant compared to mice administered adjuvants only. The lung pathology in vaccinated mice with Advax(TM) was similar to Imject Alum. Overall, RSV vaccine formulated with Advax(TM) had high neutralizing antibody titers with low lung viral titers, but exacerbated lung pathology compared to unvaccinated mice.