Articles by Timon A. Bloedjes in JoVE
Detection and Visualization of DNA Damage-induced Protein Complexes in Suspension Cell Cultures Using the Proximity Ligation Assay Mahnoush Bahjat1, Timon A. Bloedjes1, Amélie van der Veen1, Guus de Wilde1, Chiel Maas1, Jeroen E. J. Guikema1 1Department of Pathology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Lymphoma and Myeloma Center Amsterdam (LYMMCARE) Here, it is demonstrated how the in situ Proximity Ligation Assay (PLA) can be used to detect and visualize the direct protein-protein interactions between ATM and p53 in suspension cell cultures exposed to genotoxic stress.
Other articles by Timon A. Bloedjes on PubMed
NF-κB and AKT Signaling Prevent DNA Damage in Transformed Pre-B Cells by Suppressing RAG1/2 Expression and Activity Blood. Sep, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 26153519 In developing lymphocytes, expression and activity of the recombination activation gene protein 1 (RAG1) and RAG2 endonuclease complex is tightly regulated to ensure ordered recombination of the immunoglobulin genes and to avoid genomic instability. Aberrant RAG activity has been implicated in the generation of secondary genetic events in human B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (B-ALLs), illustrating the oncogenic potential of the RAG complex. Several layers of regulation prevent collateral genomic DNA damage by restricting RAG activity to the G1 phase of the cell cycle. In this study, we show a novel pathway that suppresses RAG expression in cycling-transformed mouse pre-B cells and human pre-B B-ALL cells that involves the negative regulation of FOXO1 by nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). Inhibition of NF-κB in cycling pre-B cells resulted in upregulation of RAG expression and recombination activity, which provoked RAG-dependent DNA damage. In agreement, we observe a negative correlation between NF-κB activity and the expression of RAG1, RAG2, and TdT in B-ALL patients. Our data suggest that targeting NF-κB in B-ALL increases the risk of RAG-dependent genomic instability.
The DNA Damage Response Regulates RAG1/2 Expression in Pre-B Cells Through ATM-FOXO1 Signaling Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Oct, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 27559048 The recombination activating gene (RAG) 1 and RAG2 protein complex introduces DNA breaks at Tcr and Ig gene segments that are required for V(D)J recombination in developing lymphocytes. Proper regulation of RAG1/2 expression safeguards the ordered assembly of Ag receptors and the development of lymphocytes, while minimizing the risk for collateral damage. The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase is involved in the repair of RAG1/2-mediated DNA breaks and prevents their propagation. The simultaneous occurrence of RAG1/2-dependent and -independent DNA breaks in developing lymphocytes exposed to genotoxic stress increases the risk for aberrant recombinations. In this study, we assessed the effect of genotoxic stress on RAG1/2 expression in pre-B cells and show that activation of the DNA damage response resulted in the rapid ATM-dependent downregulation of RAG1/2 mRNA and protein expression. We show that DNA damage led to the loss of FOXO1 binding to the enhancer region of the RAG1/2 locus (Erag) and provoked FOXO1 cleavage. We also show that DNA damage caused by RAG1/2 activity in pre-B cells was able to downmodulate RAG1/2 expression and activity, confirming the existence of a negative feedback regulatory mechanism. Our data suggest that pre-B cells are endowed with a protective mechanism that reduces the risk for aberrant recombinations and chromosomal translocations when exposed to DNA damage, involving the ATM-dependent regulation of FOXO1 binding to the Erag enhancer region.