Articles by Timothy L. Scott in JoVE
Pharmacologic Induction of Epidermal Melanin and Protection Against Sunburn in a Humanized Mouse Model Alexandra Amaro-Ortiz1,2, Jillian C. Vanover1,3, Timothy L. Scott1,2, John A. D'Orazio1,2,3,4 1The Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, 2Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, 3Department of Molecular and Biomedical Pharmacology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, 4Department of Pediatrics, University of Kentucky College of Medicine Epidermal melanin is induced by topical application of forskolin in a murine model of the fair-skinned UV-sensitive human. Pharmacologic manipulation of cAMP levels in the skin and epidermal darkening strongly protect against UV-mediated inflammation (sunburn) as measured by the minimum erythematous dose (MED) assay.
Other articles by Timothy L. Scott on PubMed
Purification and Growth of Melanocortin 1 Receptor (Mc1r)- Defective Primary Murine Melanocytes is Dependent on Stem Cell Factor (SFC) from Keratinocyte-conditioned Media In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19633898 The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) is a transmembrane G(s)-coupled surface protein found on melanocytes that binds melanocyte-stimulating hormone and mediates activation of adenylyl cyclase and generation of the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP). MC1R regulates growth and differentiation of melanocytes and protects against carcinogenesis. Persons with loss-offunction polymorphisms of MC1R tend to be UV-sensitive (fair-skinned and with a poor tanning response) and are at high risk for melanoma. Mechanistic studies of the role of MC1R in melanocytic UV responses, however, have been hindered in part because Mc1r-defective primary murine melanocytes have been difficult to culture in vitro. Until now, effective growth of murine melanocytes has depended on cAMP stimulation with adenylyl cyclase-activating or phosphodiesterase-inhibiting agents. However, rescuing cAMP in the setting of defective MC1R signaling would be expected to confound experiments directly testing MC1R function on melanocytic UV responses. In this paper, we report a novel method of culturing primary murine melanocytes in the absence of pharmacologic cAMP stimulation by incorporating conditioned supernatants containing stem cell factor derived from primary keratinocytes. Importantly, this method seems to permit similar pigment expression by cultured melanocytes as that found in the skin of their parental murine strains. This novel approach will allow mechanistic investigation into MC1R's role in the protection against UV-mediated carcinogenesis and determination of the role of melanin pigment subtypes on UV-mediated melanocyte responses.
Pigment-independent CAMP-mediated Epidermal Thickening Protects Against Cutaneous UV Injury by Keratinocyte Proliferation Experimental Dermatology. Oct, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 23078399 The epidermis increases pigmentation and epidermal thickness in response to ultraviolet exposure to protect against UV-associated carcinogenesis; however, the contribution of epidermal thickness has been debated. In a humanized skin mouse model that maintains interfollicular epidermal melanocytes, we found that forskolin, a small molecule that directly activates adenylyl cyclase and promotes cAMP generation, up-regulated epidermal eumelanin accumulation in fair-skinned melanocortin-1-receptor (Mc1r)-defective animals. Forskolin-induced pigmentation was associated with a reproducible expansion of epidermal thickness irrespective of melanization or the presence of epidermal melanocytes. Rather, forskolin-enhanced epidermal thickening was mediated through increased keratinocyte proliferation, indirectly through secreted factor(s) from cutaneous fibroblasts. We identified keratinocyte growth factor (Kgf) as a forskolin-induced fibroblast-derived cytokine that promoted keratinocyte proliferation, as forskolin induced Kgf expression both in the skin and in primary fibroblasts. Lastly, we found that even in the absence of pigmentation, forskolin-induced epidermal thickening significantly diminished the amount of UV-A and UV-B that passed through whole skin and reduced the amount of UV-B-associated epidermal sunburn cells. These findings suggest the possibility of pharmacologic-induced epidermal thickening as a novel UV-protective therapeutic intervention, particularly for individuals with defects in pigmentation and adaptive melanization.
Repair of Oxidative DNA Damage and Cancer - Recent Progress in DNA Base Excision Repair Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. Jul, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23901781 Significance: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by exogenous and environmental genotoxins, but also arise from mitochondria as byproducts of respiration in the body. ROS generate DNA damage of which pathological consequence including cancer is well established. Research efforts are intense to understand the mechanism of DNA base excision repair (BER), the primary mechanism to protect cells from genotoxicity caused by ROS. Recent Advances: In addition to the notion that oxidative DNA damage cause transformation of cells, recent studies have revealed how the mitochondrial deficiencies and ROS generation alter cell growth during the cancer transformation. Critical Issues: The emphasis of this review is to highlight the importance of the cellular response to oxidative DNA damage during carcinogenesis. Oxidative DNA damage, including 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine, play an important role during the cellular transformation. It is also becoming apparent that the unusual activity and subcellular distribution of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), an essential DNA repair factor/redox sensor, affect cancer malignancy by increasing cellular resistance to oxidative stress and by positively influencing cell proliferation. Future Directions: Technological advancement in cancer cell biology and genetics has enabled us to monitor the detailed DNA repair activities in the microenvironment. Precise understanding of the intracellular activities of DNA repair proteins for oxidative DNA damage should provide help in understanding how mitochondria, ROS, DNA damage and repair influence cancer transformation.