Articles by Tom L. Stephen in JoVE
Initiation of Metastatic Breast Carcinoma by Targeting of the Ductal Epithelium with Adenovirus-Cre: A Novel Transgenic Mouse Model of Breast Cancer Melanie R. Rutkowski*1, Michael J. Allegrezza*1, Nikolaos Svoronos1, Amelia J. Tesone1, Tom L. Stephen1, Alfredo Perales-Puchalt1, Jenny Nguyen1, Paul J. Zhang2, Steven N. Fiering3, Julia Tchou4,5,6, Jose R. Conejo-Garcia1 1Tumor Microenvironment and Metastasis Program, Wistar Institute, 2Department of Pathology and Lab Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Department of Genetics, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, 4Division of Endocrine and Oncologic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 5Rena Rowan Breast Center, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, 6Center for Advanced Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Activation of latent mutations with adenovirus-Cre into the mammary ductal system results in a clinically relevant metastatic breast cancer. Incorporation of a YFP promoter allows tracking of distal metastatic tumor cells. This model is useful to study latent metastasis, anti-tumor immunity, and for designing novel immunotherapies to treat breast cancer.
Other articles by Tom L. Stephen on PubMed
Limited Sufficiency of Antigen Presentation by Dendritic Cells in Models of Central Nervous System Autoimmunity Journal of Autoimmunity. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21095100 Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for the human disease multiple sclerosis (MS), is dependent upon the activation and effector functions of autoreactive CD4 T cells. Multiple interactions between CD4 T cells and major histocompatibility class II (MHCII)+ antigen presenting cells (APCs) must occur in both the periphery and central nervous system (CNS) to elicit autoimmunity. The identity of the MHCII+ APCs involved throughout this process remains in question. We investigated which APC in the periphery and CNS mediates disease using transgenic mice with MHCII expression restricted to dendritic cells (DCs). MHCII expression restricted to DCs results in normal susceptibility to peptide-mediated EAE. Indeed, radiation-sensitive bone marrow-derived DCs were sufficient for all APC functions during peptide-induced disease. However, DCs alone were inefficient at promoting disease after immunization with the myelin protein myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), even in the presence of MHCII-deficient B cells. Consistent with a defect in disease induction following protein immunization, antigen presentation by DCs alone was incapable of mediating spontaneous optic neuritis. These results indicate that DCs are capable of perpetuating CNS-targeted autoimmunity when antigens are readily available, but other APCs are required to efficiently initiate pathogenic cognate CD4 T cell responses.
Anti-tumor Immunity: Myeloid Leukocytes Control the Immune Landscape Cellular Immunology. Jul-Aug, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 23121972 The immune surveillance hypothesis proposed over 50 years ago that many precancerous lesions are eliminated without a histological trace due to immunological pressure. Since then, it has become apparent that both the tumor and the anti-cancer immune response evolve over a long period to allow the eventual escape of nascent precancerous lesions into full-blown tumors. Although primarily focusing on loss of antigenicity, the immunoediting hypothesis has gradually evolved to appreciate the role of active immunosuppression in tumor progression, where myeloid leukocytes are increasingly recognized as the major driving force. This review highlights recent studies implicating how myeloid cells with antigen-presenting capabilities are co-opted by tumors to promote malignant progression. Because at least some advanced tumors remain significantly immunogenic, these new studies add a tweak to the immunoediting hypothesis as well as a rationale to block immunosuppressive mechanisms as a first-line intervention in cancer patients.
Fibroblast Activation Protein Expression by Stromal Cells and Tumor-associated Macrophages in Human Breast Cancer Human Pathology. Nov, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 24074532 Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) has long been known to be expressed in the stroma of breast cancer. However, very little is known if the magnitude of FAP expression within the stroma may have a prognostic value and reflect the heterogeneous biology of the tumor cell. An earlier study had suggested that stromal FAP expression in breast cancer was inversely proportional to prognosis. We, therefore, hypothesized that stromal FAP expression may correlate with clinicopathologic variables and may serve as an adjunct prognostic factor in breast cancer. We evaluated the expression of FAP in a panel of breast cancer tissues (n = 52) using a combination of immunostain analyses at the tissue and single-cell level using freshly frozen or freshly digested human breast tumor samples, respectively. Our results showed that FAP expression was abundantly expressed in the stroma across all breast cancer subtypes without significant correlation with clinicopathologic factors. We further identified a subset of FAP-positive (or FAP(+)) stromal cells that also expressed CD45, a pan-leukocyte marker. Using freshly dissociated human breast tumor specimens (n = 5), we demonstrated that some of these FAP(+)CD45(+) cells were CD11b(+)CD14(+)MHC-II(+), indicating that they were likely tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Although FAP(+)CD45(+) cells have been demonstrated in the mouse tumor stroma, our results demonstrating that human breast TAMs expressed FAP were novel and suggested that existing and future FAP-directed therapy may have dual-therapeutic benefits targeting both stromal mesenchymal cells and immune cells such as TAMs. More work is needed to explore the role of FAP as a potential targetable molecule in breast cancer treatment.