Articles by Tommy Hofmann in JoVE
Combining Chemical Cross-linking and Mass Spectrometry of Intact Protein Complexes to Study the Architecture of Multi-subunit Protein Assemblies Caroline Haupt*1, Tommy Hofmann*1, Sabine Wittig*1, Susann Kostmann1, Argyris Politis2, Carla Schmidt1 1Interdisciplinary research center HALOmem, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, 2Department of Chemistry, Kings College London The architecture of protein complexes is essential for their function. Combining various mass spectrometric techniques proved powerful to study their assembly. We provide protocols for chemical cross-linking and native mass spectrometry and show how these complementary techniques help to elucidate the architecture of multi-subunit protein assemblies.
Other articles by Tommy Hofmann on PubMed
Structure Based Biophysical Characterization of the PROPPIN Atg18 Shows Atg18 Oligomerization Upon Membrane Binding Scientific Reports. | Pubmed ID: 29070817 PROPPINs (β-propellers that bind polyphosphoinositides) are PtdIns3P and PtdIns(3,5)P2 binding autophagy related proteins. They contain two phosphatidylinositolphosphate (PIP) binding sites and a conserved FRRG motif is essential for PIP binding. Here we present the 2.0 Å resolution crystal structure of the PROPPIN Atg18 from Pichia angusta. We designed cysteine mutants for labelling with the fluorescence dyes to probe the distances of the mutants to the membrane. These measurements support a model for PROPPIN-membrane binding, where the PROPPIN sits in a perpendicular or slightly tilted orientation on the membrane. Stopped-flow measurements suggest that initial PROPPIN-membrane binding is driven by non-specific PIP interactions. The FRRG motif then retains the protein in the membrane by binding two PIP molecules as evident by a lower dissociation rate for Atg18 in comparison with its PIP binding deficient FTTG mutant. We demonstrate that the amine-specific cross-linker Bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate (BS3), which is used for protein-protein cross-linking can also be applied for cross-linking proteins and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Cross-linking experiments with liposome bound Atg18 yielded several PE cross-linked peptides. We also observed intermolecular cross-linked peptides, which indicated Atg18 oligomerization. FRET-based stopped-flow measurements revealed that Atg18 rapidly oligomerizes upon membrane binding while it is mainly monomeric in solution.
Structure of the Human MHC-I Peptide-loading Complex Nature. | Pubmed ID: 29107940 The peptide-loading complex (PLC) is a transient, multisubunit membrane complex in the endoplasmic reticulum that is essential for establishing a hierarchical immune response. The PLC coordinates peptide translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum with loading and editing of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules. After final proofreading in the PLC, stable peptide-MHC-I complexes are released to the cell surface to evoke a T-cell response against infected or malignant cells. Sampling of different MHC-I allomorphs requires the precise coordination of seven different subunits in a single macromolecular assembly, including the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP1 and TAP2, jointly referred to as TAP), the oxidoreductase ERp57, the MHC-I heterodimer, and the chaperones tapasin and calreticulin. The molecular organization of and mechanistic events that take place in the PLC are unknown owing to the heterogeneous composition and intrinsically dynamic nature of the complex. Here, we isolate human PLC from Burkitt's lymphoma cells using an engineered viral inhibitor as bait and determine the structure of native PLC by electron cryo-microscopy. Two endoplasmic reticulum-resident editing modules composed of tapasin, calreticulin, ERp57, and MHC-I are centred around TAP in a pseudo-symmetric orientation. A multivalent chaperone network within and across the editing modules establishes the proofreading function at two lateral binding platforms for MHC-I molecules. The lectin-like domain of calreticulin senses the MHC-I glycan, whereas the P domain reaches over the MHC-I peptide-binding pocket towards ERp57. This arrangement allows tapasin to facilitate peptide editing by clamping MHC-I. The translocation pathway of TAP opens out into a large endoplasmic reticulum lumenal cavity, confined by the membrane entry points of tapasin and MHC-I. Two lateral windows channel the antigenic peptides to MHC-I. Structures of PLC captured at distinct assembly states provide mechanistic insight into the recruitment and release of MHC-I. Our work defines the molecular symbiosis of an ABC transporter and an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone network in MHC-I assembly and provides insight into the onset of the adaptive immune response.