Articles by Usha Kini in JoVE
A Novel Strategy Combining Array-CGH, Whole-exome Sequencing and In Utero Electroporation in Rodents to Identify Causative Genes for Brain Malformations Valerio Conti*1, Aurelie Carabalona*2,3,15, Emilie Pallesi-Pocachard2,3,4, Richard J. Leventer5,6,7, Fabienne Schaller2,3,8, Elena Parrini1, Agathe A. Deparis2,3, Françoise Watrin2,3, Emmanuelle Buhler2,3,8, Francesca Novara9, Stefano Lise10, Alistair T. Pagnamenta10, Usha Kini11, Jenny C. Taylor10, Orsetta Zuffardi9,12, Alfonso Represa2,3, David Antony Keays13, Renzo Guerrini1,14, Antonio Falace2,3, Carlos Cardoso2,3 1University of Florence, 2INSERM INMED, 3Aix-Marseille University, 4Plateforme Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire INMED, 5 Periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) is the most common form of malformation of cortical development (MCD) in adulthood but its genetic basis remains unknown in most sporadic cases. We have recently developed a strategy to identify novel candidate genes for MCDs and to directly confirm their causative role in vivo.
Other articles by Usha Kini on PubMed
Mutations in PGAP3 Impair GPI-anchor Maturation, Causing a Subtype of Hyperphosphatasia with Mental Retardation American Journal of Human Genetics. | Pubmed ID: 24439110 Glycosylphophatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins play important roles in many biological processes, and mutations affecting proteins involved in the synthesis of the GPI anchor are reported to cause a wide spectrum of intellectual disabilities (IDs) with characteristic additional phenotypic features. Here, we describe a total of five individuals (from three unrelated families) in whom we identified mutations in PGAP3, encoding a protein that is involved in GPI-anchor maturation. Three siblings in a consanguineous Pakistani family presented with profound developmental delay, severe ID, no speech, psychomotor delay, and postnatal microcephaly. A combination of autozygosity mapping and exome sequencing identified a 13.8 Mb region harboring a homozygous c.275G>A (p.Gly92Asp) variant in PGAP3 region 17q11.2-q21.32. Subsequent testing showed elevated serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a GPI-anchored enzyme, in all three affected children. In two unrelated individuals in a cohort with developmental delay, ID, and elevated ALP, we identified compound-heterozygous variants c.439dupC (p.Leu147Profs(∗)16) and c.914A>G (p.Asp305Gly) and homozygous variant c.314C>G (p.Pro105Arg). The 1 bp duplication causes a frameshift and nonsense-mediated decay. Further evidence supporting pathogenicity of the missense mutations c.275G>A, c.314C>G, and c.914A>G was provided by the absence of the variants from ethnically matched controls, phylogenetic conservation, and functional studies on Chinese hamster ovary cell lines. Taken together with recent data on PGAP2, these results confirm the importance of the later GPI-anchor remodelling steps for normal neuronal development. Impairment of PGAP3 causes a subtype of hyperphosphatasia with ID, a congenital disorder of glycosylation that is also referred to as Mabry syndrome.
Germline Recessive Mutations in PI4KA Are Associated with Perisylvian Polymicrogyria, Cerebellar Hypoplasia and Arthrogryposis Human Molecular Genetics. | Pubmed ID: 25855803 Polymicrogyria (PMG) is a structural brain abnormality involving the cerebral cortex that results from impaired neuronal migration and although several genes have been implicated, many cases remain unsolved. In this study, exome sequencing in a family where three fetuses had all been diagnosed with PMG and cerebellar hypoplasia allowed us to identify regions of the genome for which both chromosomes were shared identical-by-descent, reducing the search space for causative variants to 8.6% of the genome. In these regions, the only plausibly pathogenic mutations were compound heterozygous variants in PI4KA, which Sanger sequencing confirmed segregated consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. The paternally transmitted variant predicted a premature stop mutation (c.2386C>T; p.R796X), whereas the maternally transmitted variant predicted a missense substitution (c.5560G>A; p.D1854N) at a conserved residue within the catalytic domain. Functional studies using expressed wild-type or mutant PI4KA enzyme confirmed the importance of p.D1854 for kinase activity. Our results emphasize the importance of phosphoinositide signalling in early brain development.
Mutations in PIGY: Expanding the Phenotype of Inherited Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Deficiencies Human Molecular Genetics. | Pubmed ID: 26293662 Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are ubiquitously expressed in the human body and are important for various functions at the cell surface. Mutations in many GPI biosynthesis genes have been described to date in patients with multi-system disease and together these constitute a subtype of congenital disorders of glycosylation. We used whole exome sequencing in two families to investigate the genetic basis of disease and used RNA and cellular studies to investigate the functional consequences of sequence variants in the PIGY gene. Two families with different phenotypes had homozygous recessive sequence variants in the GPI biosynthesis gene PIGY. Two sisters with c.137T>C (p.Leu46Pro) PIGY variants had multi-system disease including dysmorphism, seizures, severe developmental delay, cataracts and early death. There were significantly reduced levels of GPI-anchored proteins (CD55 and CD59) on the surface of patient-derived skin fibroblasts (∼20-50% compared with controls). In a second, consanguineous family, two siblings had moderate development delay and microcephaly. A homozygous PIGY promoter variant (c.-540G>A) was detected within a 7.7 Mb region of autozygosity. This variant was predicted to disrupt a SP1 consensus binding site and was shown to be associated with reduced gene expression. Mutations in PIGY can occur in coding and non-coding regions of the gene and cause variable phenotypes. This article contributes to understanding of the range of disease phenotypes and disease genes associated with deficiencies of the GPI-anchor biosynthesis pathway and also serves to highlight the potential importance of analysing variants detected in 5'-UTR regions despite their typically low coverage in exome data.