Articles by Waheed Pirzai in JoVE
In vitro Coculture Assay to Assess Pathogen Induced Neutrophil Trans-epithelial Migration Mark E. Kusek1,2,3, Michael A. Pazos1,3, Waheed Pirzai3, Bryan P. Hurley1,3 1Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, MGH for Children, 3Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital Neutrophil trans-epithelial migration in response to mucosal bacterial infection contributes to epithelial injury and clinical disease. An in vitro model has been developed that combines pathogen, human neutrophils, and polarized human epithelial cell layers grown on transwell filters to facilitate investigations towards unraveling the molecular mechanisms orchestrating this phenomenon.
Other articles by Waheed Pirzai on PubMed
Selective Eicosanoid-generating Capacity of Cytoplasmic Phospholipase A2 in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa-infected Epithelial Cells American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21097525 Airway neutrophil infiltration is a pathological hallmark observed in multiple lung diseases including pneumonia and cystic fibrosis. Bacterial pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa instigate neutrophil recruitment to the air space. Excessive accumulation of neutrophils in the lung often contributes to tissue destruction. Previous studies have unveiled hepoxilin A(3) as the key molecular signal driving neutrophils across epithelial barriers. The eicosanoid hepoxilin A(3) is a potent neutrophil chemoattractant produced by epithelial cells in response to infection with P. aeruginosa. The enzyme phospholipase A(2) liberates arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids, the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of all eicosanoids, including hepoxilin A(3). Once generated, aracidonic acid is acted upon by multiple cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases producing an array of functionally diverse eicosanoids. Although there are numerous phospholipase A(2) isoforms capable of generating arachidonic acid, the isoform most often associated with eicosanoid generation is cytoplasmic phospholipase A(2)α. In the current study, we observed that the cytoplasmic phospholipase A(2)α isoform is required for mediating P. aeruginosa-induced production of certain eicosanoids such as prostaglandin E(2). However, we found that neutrophil transepithelial migration induced by P. aeruginosa does not require cytoplasmic phospholipase A(2)α. Furthermore, P. aeruginosa-induced hepoxilin A(3) production persists despite cytoplasmic phospholipase A(2)α suppression and generation of the 12-lipoxygenase metabolite 12-HETE is actually enhanced in this context. These results suggest that alterative phospholipase A(2) isoforms are utilized to synthesize 12-lipoxygenase metabolites. The therapeutic implications of these findings are significant when considering anti-inflammatory therapies based on targeting eicosanoid synthesis pathways.
Hepoxilin A(3) Facilitates Neutrophilic Breach of Lipoxygenase-expressing Airway Epithelial Barriers Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Nov, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 23045615 A feature shared by many inflammatory lung diseases is excessive neutrophilic infiltration. Neutrophil homing to airspaces involve multiple factors produced by several distinct cell types. Hepoxilin A(3) is a neutrophil chemoattractant produced by pathogen-infected epithelial cells that is hypothesized to facilitate neutrophil breach of mucosal barriers. Using a Transwell model of lung epithelial barriers infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we explored the role of hepoxilin A(3) in neutrophil transepithelial migration. Pharmacological inhibitors of the enzymatic pathways necessary to generate hepoxilin A(3), including phospholipase A(2) and 12-lipoxygenase, potently interfere with P. aeruginosa-induced neutrophil transepithelial migration. Both transformed and primary human lung epithelial cells infected with P. aeruginosa generate hepoxilin A(3) precursor arachidonic acid. All four known lipoxygenase enzymes capable of synthesizing hepoxilin A(3) are expressed in lung epithelial cell lines, primary small airway epithelial cells, and human bronchial epithelial cells. Lung epithelial cells produce increased hepoxilin A(3) and lipid-derived neutrophil chemotactic activity in response to P. aeruginosa infection. Lipid-derived chemotactic activity is soluble epoxide hydrolase sensitive, consistent with hepoxilin A(3) serving a chemotactic role. Stable inhibitory structural analogs of hepoxilin A(3) are capable of impeding P. aeruginosa-induced neutrophil transepithelial migration. Finally, intranasal infection of mice with P. aeruginosa promotes enhanced cellular infiltrate into the airspace, as well as increased concentration of the 12-lipoxygenase metabolites hepoxilin A(3) and 12-hydroxyeicosa-5Z,8Z,10E,14Z-tetraenoic acid. Data generated from multiple models in this study provide further evidence that hepoxilin A(3) is produced in response to lung pathogenic bacteria and functions to drive neutrophils across epithelial barriers.
Role of Antilipopolysaccharide Antibodies in Serum Bactericidal Activity Against Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Healthy Adults and Children in the United States Clinical and Vaccine Immunology : CVI. Oct, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23803904 Recent observations from Africa have rekindled interest in the role of serum bactericidal antibodies in protecting against systemic infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. To determine whether the findings are applicable to other populations, we analyzed serum samples collected from healthy individuals in the United States. We found that all but 1 of the 49 adult samples tested had robust bactericidal activity against S. Typhimurium in a standard in vitro assay. The activity was dependent on complement and could be reproduced by immunoglobulin G (IgG) purified from the sera. The bactericidal activity was inhibited by competition with soluble lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from S. Typhimurium but not from Escherichia coli, consistent with recognition of a determinant in the O-antigen polysaccharide. Sera from healthy children aged 10 to 48 months also had bactericidal activity, although it was significantly less than in the adults, correlating with lower levels of LPS-specific IgM and IgG. The lone sample in our collection that lacked bactericidal activity was able to inhibit killing of S. Typhimurium by the other sera. The inhibition correlated with the presence of an LPS-specific IgM and was associated with decreased complement deposition on the bacterial surface. Our results indicate that healthy individuals can have circulating antibodies to LPS that either mediate or inhibit killing of S. Typhimurium. The findings contrast with the observations from Africa, which linked bactericidal activity to antibodies against an S. Typhimurium outer membrane protein and correlated the presence of inhibitory anti-LPS antibodies with human immunodeficiency virus infection.