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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (6)
Articles by Walther Schwarzacher in JoVE
Synthesis of Cationized Magnetoferritin for Ultra-fast Magnetization of Cells
Sara Correia Carreira1, James P.K. Armstrong2, Mitsuhiro Okuda3,4, Annela M. Seddon1, Adam W. Perriman5, Walther Schwarzacher6
1Bristol Centre for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Bristol, 2Department of Materials, Imperial College London, 3Self Assembly Group, CIC nanoGUNE, 4Ikebasque, Basque Foundation for Science, 5School of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Bristol, 6H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol
Other articles by Walther Schwarzacher on PubMed
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics : PCCP. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21922091
A new in situ electrochemical method of functionalizing an oxide-free Ni surface is demonstrated using octanethiol. Initial adsorption results in a multilayer molecular film, which blocks both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and re-oxidation of the Ni by ambient oxygen. However, excess octanethiol can be removed by rinsing with ethanol, leaving behind a monolayer that continues to protect against re-oxidation but gives rise to an unexpected enhancement in the HER, with a greater enhancement for longer film formation times. The presence of an octanethiol monolayer on the surface was confirmed by spectroscopic observation of the CH(2), CH(3) and thiolate groups using infra red spectroscopy, while X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy demonstrated the effectiveness of the thiol layer as a barrier to surface oxidation. The electrochemically prepared octanethiol film impedes oxidation of the Ni in air more effectively than a film formed by immersion in a solution of octanethiol in ethanol.
Nanotechnology. Oct, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 23010993
The synthesis of magnetic, monodisperse nanoparticles has attracted great interest in nanoelectronics and nanomedicine. Here we report the fabrication of pure magnetite nanoparticles, less than ten nanometers in size, using the cage-shaped protein apoferritin (Fe(3)O(4)-ferritin). Crystallizable proteins were obtained through careful successive separation methods, including a magnetic chromatography that enabled the effective separation of proteins, including a Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticle (7.9 ± 0.8 nm), from empty ones. Macroscopic protein crystals allowed the fabrication of three-dimensional arrays of Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles with interparticle gaps controlled by dehydration, decreasing their magnetic susceptibilities and increasing their blocking temperatures through enhanced dipole-dipole interactions.
Langmuir : the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids. Dec, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 25370276
An electrochemical method is presented for fabricating cobalt thin films for single-molecule electrical transport measurements. These films are electroplated in an aqueous electrolyte, but the crucial stages of electrochemical reduction to remove surface oxide and adsorption of alkane(di)thiol target molecules under electrochemical control to form self-assembled monolayers which protect the oxide-free cobalt surface are carried out in an ionic liquid. This approach yields monolayers on Co that are of comparable quality to those formed on Au by standard self-assembly protocols, as assessed by electrochemical methods and surface infrared spectroscopy. Using an adapted scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) method, we have determined the single-molecule conductance of cobalt/1,8-octanedithiol/cobalt junctions by employing a monolayer on cobalt and a cobalt STM tip in an ionic liquid environment and have compared the results with those of experiments using gold electrodes as a control. These cobalt substrates could therefore have future application in organic spintronic devices such as magnetic tunnel junctions.
Nano Letters. Jan, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 25456978
Using a scanning tunnelling microscope break-junction technique, we produce 4,4'-bipyridine (44BP) single-molecule junctions with Ni and Au contacts. Electrochemical control is used to prevent Ni oxidation and to modulate the conductance of the devices via nonredox gating--the first time this has been shown using non-Au contacts. Remarkably the conductance and gain of the resulting Ni-44BP-Ni electrochemical transistors is significantly higher than analogous Au-based devices. Ab-initio calculations reveal that this behavior arises because charge transport is mediated by spin-polarized Ni d-electrons, which hybridize strongly with molecular orbitals to form a "spinterface". Our results highlight the important role of the contact material for single-molecule devices and show that it can be varied to provide control of charge and spin transport.
Journal of the American Chemical Society. May, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 25894840
We report an electrochemically assisted jump-to-contact scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) break junction approach to create reproducible and well-defined single-molecule spintronic junctions. The STM break junction is equipped with an external magnetic field either parallel or perpendicular to the electron transport direction. The conductance of Fe-terephthalic acid (TPA)-Fe single-molecule junctions is measured and a giant single-molecule tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance (T-AMR) up to 53% is observed at room temperature. Theoretical calculations based on first-principles quantum simulations show that the observed AMR of Fe-TPA-Fe junctions originates from electronic coupling at the TPA-Fe interfaces modified by the magnetic orientation of the Fe electrodes with respect to the direction of current flow. The present study highlights new opportunities for obtaining detailed understanding of mechanisms of charge and spin transport in molecular junctions and the role of interfaces in determining the MR of single-molecule junctions.
Nanoscale. Dec, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 27924336
Oligoynes are archetypical molecular wires due to their 1-D chain of conjugated carbon atoms and ability to transmit charge over long distances by coherent tunneling. However, the stability of the oligoyne can be an issue. Here we address this problem by two stabilization methods, namely sterically shielding endgroups, and rotaxination to produce an insulated molecular wire. We demonstrate the threading of a hexayne within a macrocycle to form a rotaxane and report measurements of the electrical conductance of this single supramolecular assembly within an STM break junction. The macrocycle is retained around the hexayne through the use of 3,5-diphenylpyridine stoppers at both ends of the molecular wire, which also serve as chemisorption contacts to the gold electrodes of the junction. Molecular conductance was measured for both the supramolecular assembly and also for the molecular wire in the absence of the macrocycle. The threaded macrocycle, which at room temperature is mobile along the length of the hexayne between the stoppers, has only a minimal impact on the conductance. However, the probability of molecular junction formation in a given break junction formation cycle is notably lower with the rotaxane. In seeking to understand the conductance behavior, the electronic properties of these molecular assemblies and the electrical behavior of the junctions have been investigated by using DFT-based computational methods.