In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (31)

Articles by Wenlei Jiang in JoVE

 JoVE Medicine

Quantification of the Immunosuppressant Tacrolimus on Dried Blood Spots Using LC-MS/MS

1iC42 Clinical Research and Development, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, 2Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Center of Drug Evaluation Research - Office of Generic Drugs, 4Transplant Clinical Research, University of Cincinnati


JoVE 52424

Other articles by Wenlei Jiang on PubMed

Restoration of Fertility in Oophorectomized Rats After Tubo-ovarian Transplantation

Microsurgery. 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 11891873

Improved microsurgical techniques for en bloc vascularized adnexal isograft in the rat is described. The graft of the right ovary together with its fallopian tube and upper third of uterus was transplanted orthotopically with end-to-side anastomoses between the donor aortic segment and recipient aorta and between the donor vena cava segment and recipient inferior vena cava, with end-to-end anastomosis of the donor and recipient uterus in a syngeneic, bilaterally oophorectomized rat. All transplantations were successful in terms of immediate vascular patency rate (10/10, 100%). Evidence of resumed ovarian function was obtained in 9 out of 10 rats (9/10, 90.0%) by histological demonstration of the vaginal smear, in which pregnancies were achieved in six rats (6/10, 60.0%) and six litters of healthy offspring were delivered 9 weeks later after transplantation. These results suggest that microsurgical ovarian transplantation provide a new and potential experimental model for the study of fertility restoration in humans.

Significant Prolongation of Renal Allograft Survival by Delayed Combination Therapy of FK778 with Tacrolimus in Nonhuman Primates

Transplantation. Apr, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 12717189

Malononitrilamide 715 (FK778) is a new class of low-molecular-weight immunosuppressant that is a derivative of the active metabolite of leflunomide, A77 1726. In this study, the authors evaluated the combined effect of FK778 with tacrolimus in prevention of renal allograft rejection in Vervet monkeys.

Synergistic Effect of Vincristine with Tacrolimus or Sirolimus in Prevention of Acute Heart Allograft Rejection in the Rat

Microsurgery. 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 12740883

The application of multiple immunosuppressive therapy for organ transplantation could enhance therapeutic efficacy, while minimizing the toxicity of individual drugs used in the regimen. In this study, the effect of the combined therapy of vincristine (VCR) with tacrolimus (FK506) or sirolimus (rapamycin, RAPA) was tested in prevention of acute heart allograft rejection in the rat. A Brown Norway (BN, RT 1(n)) to Lewis (LEW, RT 1(1)) rat combination was used in a heart allografting model. VCR was administered intraperitoneally once daily, while FK506 and RAPA were given by gavage once daily for 14 days after transplantation. There were dose-related prolongations of mean survival time (MST) to monotherapy of VCR, FK506, or RAPA. The MST in combination therapy indicated that a synergistic interaction was produced when compared with the respective monotherapies: VCR 0.05 mg/kg/day + FK506 0.5 mg/kg/day (16.00 +/- 1.79 days, P = 0.001; combination index (CI) = 0.557); VCR 0.05 mg/kg/day + FK506 1.0 mg/kg/day (29.00 +/- 10.54 days, P = 0.001; CI = 0.598); VCR 0.05 mg/kg/day + RAPA 0.2 mg/kg/day (17.33 +/- 1.97 days, P = 0.001; CI = 0.500); and VCR 0.05 mg/kg/day + RAPA 0.4 mg/kg/day (21.17 +/- 3.19 days, P = 0.001; CI = 0.838). Combination therapy of VCR and FK506 or RAPA produced synergistic effects in prevention of acute heart allograft rejection in the rat.

Combination Therapy of Malononitrilamide FK778 with Tacrolimus on Cell Proliferation Assays and in Rats Receiving Renal Allografts

Transplantation. May, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 12792496

Malononitrilamide FK778, an analogue of leflunomide's active metabolite, is a promising novel small molecule with immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we evaluated the ability of combination therapy of FK778 with tacrolimus to inhibit lymphocyte proliferation and to prevent acute allograft rejection.

Synergistic Effects of Malononitrilamides (FK778, FK779) with Tacrolimus (FK506) in Prevention of Acute Heart and Kidney Allograft Rejection and Reversal of Ongoing Heart Allograft Rejection in the Rat

Transplantation. Jun, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 12811249

The effects of tacrolimus (FK506) and malononitrilamides (MNA) (FK778 and FK779) monotherapy and combination therapy were examined in prevention of acute heart and kidney allograft rejection and reversal of ongoing acute heart allograft rejection in the rat.

Biodegradable Poly(lactic-co-glycolic Acid) Microparticles for Injectable Delivery of Vaccine Antigens

Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. Jan, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15560948

Injectable biodegradable polymeric particles (usually microspheres) represent an exciting approach to control the release of vaccine antigens to reduce the number of doses in the immunization schedule and optimize the desired immune response via selective targeting of antigen to antigen presenting cells. After the first couple of decades of their study, much progress has been made towards the clinical use of antigen-loaded microspheres. Poly(lactide-co-glycolic acids) (PLGAs) have been studied most commonly for this purpose because of their proven safety record and established use in marketed products for controlled delivery of several peptide drugs. PLGA microspheres have many desirable features relative to standard aluminum-based adjuvants, including the microspheres' ability to induce cell-mediated immunity, a necessary requirement for emergent vaccines against HIV and cancer. This review examines several impediments to PLGA microparticle development, such as PLGA-encapsulated antigen instability and deficiency of animal models in predicting human response, and describes new trends in overcoming these important issues. PLGA microparticles have displayed unprecedented versatility and safety to accomplish release of one or multiple antigens of varying physical-chemical characteristics and immunologic requirements, and have now met numerous critical benchmarks in development of long-lasting immunity after a single injected dose.

Effect of a Novel Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor in Prevention of Rat Chronic Aortic Rejections

Transplantation. May, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15912108

Cytotoxic nitric oxide (NO) is produced during ischemia-reperfusion injury and acute and chronic rejection in allografts by expression of inducible (i) NO synthase (NOS). Therefore, continuous inhibition of iNOS may prevent early graft dysfunction and immune injury (rejection) and consequently improve graft survival. FR260330 is a potent and selective inhibitor of iNOS activity that works by preventing iNOS monomers from dimerization. In this study, the authors evaluated the effect of FR260330 in prevention of chronic rejection in a model of rat aortic allografts.

Contribution of Hfe Expression in Macrophages to the Regulation of Hepatic Hepcidin Levels and Iron Loading

Blood. Sep, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15914561

Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH), an iron overload disease associated with mutations in the HFE gene, is characterized by increased intestinal iron absorption and consequent deposition of excess iron, primarily in the liver. Patients with HH and Hfe-deficient (Hfe-/-) mice manifest inappropriate expression of the iron absorption regulator hepcidin, a peptide hormone produced by the liver in response to iron loading. In this study, we investigated the contribution of Hfe expression in macrophages to the regulation of liver hepcidin levels and iron loading. We used bone marrow transplantation to generate wild-type (wt) and Hfe-/- mice chimeric for macrophage Hfe gene expression. Reconstitution of Hfe-deficient mice with wt bone marrow resulted in augmented capacity of the spleen to store iron and in significantly decreased liver iron loading, accompanied by a significant increase of hepatic hepcidin mRNA levels. Conversely, wt mice reconstituted with Hfe-deficient bone marrow had a diminished capacity to store iron in the spleen but no significant alterations of liver iron stores or hepcidin mRNA levels. Our results suggest that macrophage Hfe participates in the regulation of splenic and liver iron concentrations and liver hepcidin expression.

Distinct Requirements for Hfe in Basal and Induced Hepcidin Levels in Iron Overload and Inflammation

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Aug, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16565419

Hepcidin is a negative regulator of iron absorption produced mainly by the liver in response to changes in iron stores and inflammation, and its levels have been shown to regulate the intestinal basolateral iron transporter ferroportin1 (Fp1). Hereditary hemochromatosis patients and Hfe-deficient mice show inappropriate expression of hepcidin but, in apparent contradiction, still retain the ability to regulate iron absorption in response to alterations of iron metabolism. To further understand the molecular relationships among Hfe, hepcidin, and Fp1, we investigated hepcidin and Fp1 regulation in Hfe-deficient mice (Hfe-/- and beta2m-/-) in response to iron deprivation, iron loading, and acute inflammation. We found that whereas basal hepcidin levels were manifestly dependent on the presence of Hfe and on the mouse background, all Hfe-deficient mice were still able to regulate hepcidin in situations of altered iron homeostasis. In the liver, Fp1 was modulated in opposite directions by iron and LPS, and its regulation in Hfe-deficient mice was similar to that observed in wild-type mice. In addition, we found that iron-deprived mice were able to mount a robust response after LPS challenge and that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4)-deficient mice fail to regulate hepcidin expression in response to LPS. In conclusion, these results suggest that although Hfe is necessary for the establishment of hepcidin basal levels, it is dispensable for hepcidin regulation through both the iron-sensing and inflammatory pathways, and hepatic Fp1 regulation is largely independent of hepcidin and Hfe. The inflammatory pathway overrides the iron-sensing pathway and is TLR-4 dependent.

Anemia Upregulates Lipocalin 2 in the Liver and Serum

Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases. Sep-Oct, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18519167

Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), a mammalian protein that is expressed and secreted in various pathologic states, binds siderophores, which are high-affinity iron chelators. Besides its role in limiting iron availability to pathogens in the setting of bacterial infection, Lcn2:siderophore complexes can also deliver iron to cells. In this study, we examined Lcn2 regulation in the liver of mice in situations of increased iron utilization, namely, during anemia. Anemia induced by phlebotomy, iron deprivation, or phenylhydrazine treatment was associated with upregulation of Lcn2 gene expression in the liver and elevation of serum Lcn2 protein levels. We further explored the participation of several factors known to co-occur during anemia, including hypoxia, changes in iron levels, and erythropoietic drive, in the regulation of Lcn2 by anemia. We found that hypoxia, but not iron or erythropoietin, caused an induction of Lcn2 expression. The upregulation of Lcn2 levels by anemia and hypoxia, which is not directly mediated by iron or erythropoietin, suggests a possible physiological role for Lcn2 during increased iron utilization and mobilization from stores.

Stabilization of Tetanus Toxoid Encapsulated in PLGA Microspheres

Molecular Pharmaceutics. Sep-Oct, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18710256

Delivery of vaccine antigens from controlled-release poly(lactic/glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres is a novel approach to reduce the number of antigen doses required for protection against infection. A major impediment to developing single-shot vaccines is encapsulated antigen instability during months of exposure to physiological conditions. For example, efforts to control neonatal tetanus in developing countries with a single-dose TT vaccine based on PLGA microspheres have been plagued by poor stability of the 150 kDa formaldehyde-detoxified protein antigen, tetanus toxoid (TT), in the polymer. We examined the denatured states of PLGA-encapsulated TT, revealing two primary TT instability mechanisms: (1) protein aggregation mediated by formaldehyde and (2) acid-induced protein unfolding and epitope damage. Further, we systematically identified excipients, which can efficiently inhibit TT aggregation and retain TT antigenicity under simulated deleterious conditions, i.e., elevated temperature and humidity. By employing these novel additives in the PLGA system, we report the slow and continuous release of high doses of TT for one month with retained antigen stability during bioerosion of PLGA.

Cerebral Inflammation Contributes to Encephalopathy and Brain Edema in Acute Liver Failure: Protective Effect of Minocycline

Journal of Neurochemistry. Apr, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19220703

Encephalopathy and brain edema are serious complications of acute liver failure (ALF). The precise pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible have not been fully elucidated but it has been recently proposed that microglia-derived proinflammatory cytokines are involved. In the present study we evaluated the role of microglial activation and the protective effect of the anti-inflammatory drug minocycline in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy and brain edema in rats with ALF resulting from hepatic devascularisation. ALF rats were killed 6 h after hepatic artery ligation before the onset of neurological symptoms and at coma stages of encephalopathy along with their appropriate sham-operated controls and in parallel with minocycline-treated ALF rats. Increased OX-42 and OX-6 immunoreactivities confirming microglial activation were accompanied by increased expression of interleukins (IL-1beta, IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the frontal cortex at coma stage of encephalopathy in ALF rats compared with sham-operated controls. Minocycline treatment prevented both microglial activation as well as the up-regulation of IL-1beta, IotaL-6 and TNF-alpha mRNA and protein expression with a concomitant attenuation of the progression of encephalopathy and brain edema. These results offer the first direct evidence for central proinflammatory mechanisms in the pathogenesis of brain edema and its complications in ALF and suggest that anti-inflammatory agents may be beneficial in these patients.

Direct Evidence for Central Proinflammatory Mechanisms in Rats with Experimental Acute Liver Failure: Protective Effect of Hypothermia

Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism : Official Journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. May, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19259110

It has been proposed that proinflammatory mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of brain edema in acute liver failure (ALF). The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of cerebral inflammation to the neurologic complications of ALF and to assess the antiinflammatory effect of mild hypothermia. Upregulation of CD11b/c immunoreactivity, consistent with microglial activation, was observed in the brains of ALF rats at coma stages of encephalopathy. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNAs were increased two to threefold in the brains of ALF rats compared with that in sham-operated controls. The magnitude of increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the brain was correlated with the progression of encephalopathy and the onset of brain edema. Significant increases in IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha levels were also found in the sera and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of these animals. Mild hypothermia delayed the onset of encephalopathy, prevented brain edema, and concomitantly attenuated plasma, brain, and CSF proinflammatory cytokines. These results show that experimental ALF leads to increases in brain production of proinflammatory cytokines, and afford the first direct evidence that central inflammatory mechanisms play a role in the pathogenesis of the cerebral complications of ALF. Antiinflammatory agents could be beneficial in the management of these complications.

Hypothermia Attenuates Oxidative/nitrosative Stress, Encephalopathy and Brain Edema in Acute (ischemic) Liver Failure

Neurochemistry International. Jul-Aug, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19428816

Encephalopathy and brain edema are serious complications of acute liver failure (ALF). The precise pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible have not been fully elucidated but it has been suggested that oxidative/nitrosative stress is involved. In the present study we evaluated the role of oxidative/nitrosative stress in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy and brain edema in rats with ALF resulting from hepatic devascularization. We also studied the effect of hypothermia, a treatment previously shown to delay the progression of encephalopathy and the onset of brain edema, on ALF-induced oxidative stress. ALF rats were sacrificed at precoma and coma stages of encephalopathy along with their appropriate sham-operated controls. Hypothermic ALF rats were sacrificed in parallel with normothermic comatose ALF rats. Nitric oxide production in plasma and brain was assessed indirectly by measuring the level of its stable end products, nitrite/nitrate (NOx), using the Griess reagent. Expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were measured using real-time quantitative PCR, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Increased nitrite/nitrate levels were observed in the plasma and frontal cortex in ALF rats at coma stage of encephalopathy compared to sham-operated controls. Increased expression of HO-1 protein and mRNA was observed in the frontal cortex of ALF rats at both precoma and coma stages of encephalopathy. Significant increases in expression of endothelial and inducible NOS mRNA isoforms also occurred at precoma and coma stages of encephalopathy. Expression of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase isoform (nNOS) was not altered by ALF. Hypothermia normalized nitrite/nitrate levels in brain and significantly attenuated HO-1, eNOS and iNOS expression. These results suggest that, oxidative/nitrosative stress participates in the pathogenesis of brain edema and its complications in ALF and that the beneficial effect of hypothermia depends in part on its ability to inhibit oxidative/nitrosative stress-related mechanisms.

Minocycline Attenuates Oxidative/nitrosative Stress and Cerebral Complications of Acute Liver Failure in Rats

Neurochemistry International. Dec, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19524003

In the present study, the effects of minocycline on progression of encephalopathy and brain edema in rats with acute liver failure (ALF) resulting from hepatic devascularization were studied in relation to the antioxidant action of the drug. ALF rats were sacrificed at precoma and coma stages of encephalopathy along with their appropriate sham-operated controls. Minocycline-treated ALF rats were sacrificed in parallel with comatose vehicle-treated ALF controls. Microglial activation was assessed using CD11b/c (OX-42) immunohistochemistry. Nitrite/nitrate levels in plasma and brain were measured using the Griess reaction. Expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were measured using real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis. Increased nitrite/nitrate levels were observed in the plasma of ALF rats at coma stage of encephalopathy compared to sham-operated controls. Increased expression of HO-1 mRNA and protein was observed in the frontal cortex of ALF rats at both precoma and coma stages of encephalopathy. Significant increases in expression of endothelial (eNOS) and inducible (iNOS) isoforms of NOS mRNA and protein occurred only at coma stages of encephalopathy accompanied by increased brain nitrite/nitrate concentrations. As expected, minocycline attenuated microglial activation as confirmed by decreased OX-42 immunoreactivity, normalized nitrite/nitrate levels in brain and significantly attenuated HO-1, eNOS and iNOS expression. These results indicate that the beneficial effect of minocycline on the neurological complications of ALF is mediated, at least in part, by reduction of oxidative/nitrosative stress.

Portacaval Anastomosis-induced Hyperammonemia Does Not Lead to Oxidative Stress

Metabolic Brain Disease. Mar, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20195725

Ammonia is neurotoxic and believed to play a major role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). It has been demonstrated, in vitro and in vivo, that acute and high ammonia treatment induces oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly reactive and can lead to oxidization of proteins resulting in protein damage. The present study was aimed to assess oxidative status of proteins in plasma and brain (frontal cortex) of rats with 4-week portacaval anastomosis (PCA). Markers of oxidative stress, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and carbonylation were evaluated by immunoblotting in plasma and frontal cortex. Western blot analysis did not demonstrate a significant difference in either HNE-linked or carbonyl derivatives on proteins between PCA and sham-operated control rats in both plasma and frontal cortex. The present study suggests PCA-induced hyperammonemia does not lead to systemic or central oxidative stress.

Ammonia and Proinflammatory Cytokines Modify Expression of Genes Coding for Astrocytic Proteins Implicated in Brain Edema in Acute Liver Failure

Metabolic Brain Disease. Mar, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20217200

There is evidence to suggest that, in acute liver failure (ALF), brain ammonia and proinflammatory cytokines may act synergistically to cause brain edema and its complications (intracranial hypertension, brain herniation). However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain to be established. In order to address this issue, semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure the expression of genes coding for astrocytic proteins with an established role in cell volume regulation in cerebral cortical astrocytes exposed to toxic agents previously identified in experimental and clinical ALF. Such agents include ammonia, the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and combinations of the two. Exposure of cultured astrocytes to recombinant IL-1beta (but not ammonia) resulted in increased expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP-4). Both ammonia and proinflammatory mediators led to decreased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a cytoskeletal protein, but these effects were not additive. On the other hand, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression were significantly increased by exposure to both ammonia and proinflammatory mediators and although modest, these effects were additive suggestive of a synergistic mechanism. These findings suggest that worsening of brain edema and its complications in ALF due to proinflammatory mechanisms may result from exacerbation of oxidative stress-related mechanisms rather than upregulation of AQP-4 or decreases in expression of the astrocytic structural protein GFAP.

In Vitro and in Vivo Characterizations of PEGylated Liposomal Doxorubicin

Bioanalysis. Feb, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21320053

One challenge in developing a nanoparticle drug-delivery system is understanding the critical physicochemical properties that may impact its in vivo performance and establishing analytical techniques that can adequately characterize in vitro and in vivo properties. Doxil®/Caelyx®, a PEGylated liposomal doxorubincin (PLD), is one of the leading approved nanoparticle product used in cancer therapy. In this review, we use PLD as an example to illustrate identification of key in vitro and in vivo characteristics. The following characteristics, including liposome composition, state of encapsulated drug, internal environment of liposome, liposome size distribution, lamellarity, grafted polyethylene glycol at the liposome surface, electrical surface potential or charge, and in vitro leakage, are considered critical to demonstrate the supramolecular structure of PLD and ensure consistent drug delivery to cancer tissues. Corresponding analytical techniques are discussed to determine these liposome characteristics. Furthermore, in vivo stability of the PLD can be determined by plasma pharmacokinetics of both free and liposome-encapsulated drug. A better understanding of the critical in vitro and in vivo liposome characteristics together with improvements in analytical technology will enable generic liposome product development and ensure liposome product quality.

The Role of Predictive Biopharmaceutical Modeling and Simulation in Drug Development and Regulatory Evaluation

International Journal of Pharmaceutics. Oct, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21803144

Advances in predicting in vivo performance of drug products has the potential to change how drug products are developed and reviewed. Modeling and simulation methods are now more commonly used in drug product development and regulatory drug review. These applications include, but are not limited to: the development of biorelevant specifications, the determination of bioequivalence metrics for modified release products with rapid therapeutic onset, the design of in vitro-in vivo correlations in a mechanistic framework, and prediction of food effect. As new regulatory concepts such as quality by design require better application of biopharmaceutical modeling in drug product development, regulatory challenges in bioequivalence demonstration of complex drug products also present exciting opportunities for creative modeling and simulation approaches. A collaborative effort among academia, government and industry in modeling and simulation will result in improved safe and effective new/generic drugs to the American public.

Systemic Oxidative Stress is Implicated in the Pathogenesis of Brain Edema in Rats with Chronic Liver Failure

Free Radical Biology & Medicine. Apr, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22300646

Chronic liver failure leads to hyperammonemia, a central component in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE); however, a correlation between blood ammonia levels and HE severity remains controversial. It is believed oxidative stress plays a role in modulating the effects of hyperammonemia. This study aimed to determine the relationship between chronic hyperammonemia, oxidative stress, and brain edema (BE) in two rat models of HE: portacaval anastomosis (PCA) and bile-duct ligation (BDL). Ammonia and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, BE, oxidant and antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as lipid peroxidation were assessed both systemically and centrally in these two different animal models. Then, the effects of allopurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibitor, 100mg/kg for 10days) on ROS and BE and the temporal resolution of ammonia, ROS, and BE were evaluated only in BDL rats. Similar arterial and cerebrospinal fluid ammonia levels were found in PCA and BDL rats, both significantly higher compared to their respective sham-operated controls (p<0.05). BE was detected in BDL rats (p < 0.05) but not in PCA rats. Evidence of oxidative stress was found systemically but not centrally in BDL rats: increased levels of ROS, increased activity of xanthine oxidase (oxidant enzyme), enhanced oxidative modifications on lipids, as well as decreased antioxidant defense. In PCA rats, a preserved oxidant/antioxidant balance was demonstrated. Treatment with allopurinol in BDL rats attenuated both ROS and BE, suggesting systemic oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of BE. Analysis of ROS and ammonia temporal resolution in the plasma of BDL rats suggests systemic oxidative stress might be an important "first hit", which, followed by increases in ammonia, leads to BE in chronic liver failure. In conclusion, chronic hyperammonemia and oxidative stress in combination lead to the onset of BE in rats with chronic liver failure.

Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy and Brain Edema in Acute Liver Failure: Role of Glutamine Redefined

Neurochemistry International. Jun, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22382077

Acute liver failure (ALF) is characterized neuropathologically by cytotoxic brain edema and biochemically by increased brain ammonia and its detoxification product, glutamine. The osmotic actions of increased glutamine synthesis in astrocytes are considered to be causally related to brain edema and its complications (intracranial hypertension, brain herniation) in ALF. However studies using multinuclear (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy demonstrate that neither brain glutamine concentrations per se nor brain glutamine synthesis rates correlate with encephalopathy grade or the presence of brain edema in ALF. An alternative mechanism is now proposed whereby the newly synthesized glutamine is trapped within the astrocyte as a consequence of down-regulation of its high affinity glutamine transporter SNAT5 in ALF. Restricted transfer out of the cell rather than increased synthesis within the cell could potentially explain the cell swelling/brain edema in ALF. Moreover, the restricted transfer of glutamine from the astrocyte to the adjacent glutamatergic nerve terminal (where glutamine serves as immediate precursor for the releasable/transmitter pool of glutamate) could result in decreased excitatory transmission and excessive neuroinhibition that is characteristic of encephalopathy in ALF. Paradoxically, in spite of renewed interest in arterial ammonia as a predictor of raised intracranial pressure and brain herniation in ALF, ammonia-lowering agents aimed at reduction of ammonia production in the gut have so far been shown to be of limited value in the prevention of these cerebral consequences. Mild hypothermia, shown to prevent brain edema and intracranial hypertension in both experimental and human ALF, does so independent of effects on brain glutamine synthesis; whether or not hypothermia restores expression levels of SNAT5 in ALF awaits further studies. While inhibitors of brain glutamine synthesis such as methionine sulfoximine, have been proposed for the prevention of brain edema in ALF, potential adverse effects have so far limited their applicability.

CDER Risk Assessment Exercise to Evaluate Potential Risks from the Use of Nanomaterials in Drug Products

The AAPS Journal. Mar, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23512727

The Nanotechnology Risk Assessment Working Group in the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) within the United States Food and Drug Administration was established to assess the possible impact of nanotechnology on drug products. The group is in the process of performing risk assessment and management exercises. The task of the working group is to identify areas where CDER may need to optimize its review practices and to develop standards to ensure review consistency for drug applications that may involve the application of nanotechnology. The working group already performed risk management exercises evaluating the potential risks from administering nanomaterial active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) or nanomaterial excipients by various routes of administration. This publication outlines the risk assessment and management process used by the working group, using nanomaterial API by the oral route of administration as an example.

Role of Anti-inflammatory Compounds in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Glycoprotein120-mediated Brain Inflammation

Journal of Neuroinflammation. 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24884548

Neuroinflammation is a common immune response associated with brain human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. Identifying therapeutic compounds that exhibit better brain permeability and can target signaling pathways involved in inflammation may benefit treatment of HIV-associated neurological complications. The objective of this study was to implement an in vivo model of brain inflammation by intracerebroventricular administration of the HIV-1 viral coat protein gp120 in rats and to examine anti-inflammatory properties of HIV adjuvant therapies such as minocycline, chloroquine and simvastatin.

Quantification of Lamotrigine in Patient Plasma Using a Fast Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry Method with Backflush Technology

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. Apr, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25162213

Recent concerns have been raised by neurologists and patients with epilepsy regarding the bioequivalence of generic lamotrigine to the brand Lamictal. Bioequivalence studies require the quantification of lamotrigine in human plasma, including in the presence of other drugs, for studies that will use patients with epilepsy rather than healthy volunteers.

A PEGylation-Free Biomimetic Porphyrin Nanoplatform for Personalized Cancer Theranostics

ACS Nano. Apr, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25830219

PEGylation (PEG) is the most commonly adopted strategy to prolong nanoparticles' vascular circulation by mitigating the reticuloendothelial system uptake. However, there remain many concerns in regards to its immunogenicity, targeting efficiency, etc., which inspires pursuit of alternate, non-PEGylated systems. We introduced here a PEG-free, porphyrin-based ultrasmall nanostructure mimicking nature lipoproteins, termed PLP, that integrates multiple imaging and therapeutic functionalities, including positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging and photodynamic therapy (PDT). With an engineered lipoprotein-mimicking structure, PLP is highly stable in the blood circulation, resulting in favorable pharmacokinetics and biodistribution without the need of PEG. The prompt tumor intracellular trafficking of PLP allows for rapid nanostructure dissociation upon tumor accumulation to release monomeric porphyrins to efficiently generate fluorescence and photodynamic reactivity, which are highly silenced in intact PLP, thus providing an activatable mechanism for low-background NIR fluorescence imaging and tumor-selective PDT. Its intrinsic copper-64 labeling feature allows for noninvasive PET imaging of PLP delivery and quantitative assessment of drug distribution. Using a clinically relevant glioblastoma multiforme model, we demonstrated that PLP enabled accurate delineation of tumor from surrounding healthy brain at size less than 1 mm, exhibiting the potential for intraoperative fluorescence-guided surgery and tumor-selective PDT. Furthermore, we demonstrated the general applicability of PLP for sensitive and accurate detection of primary and metastatic tumors in other clinically relevant animal models. Therefore, PLP offers a biomimetic theranostic nanoplatform for pretreatment stratification using PET and NIR fluorescence imaging and for further customized cancer management via imaging-guided surgery, PDT, or/and potential chemotherapy.

A Bioequivalence Approach for Generic Narrow Therapeutic Index Drugs: Evaluation of the Reference-Scaled Approach and Variability Comparison Criterion

The AAPS Journal. Jul, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25840883

Various health communities have expressed concerns regarding whether average bioequivalence (BE) limits (80.00-125.00%) for the 90% confidence interval of the test-to-reference geometric mean ratio are sufficient to ensure therapeutic equivalence between a generic narrow therapeutic index (NTI) drug and its reference listed drug (RLD). Simulations were conducted to investigate the impact of different BE approaches for NTI drugs on study power, including (1) direct tightening of average BE limits and (2) a scaled average BE approach where BE limits are tightened based on the RLD's within-subject variability. Addition of a variability comparison (using a one-tailed F test) increased the difficulty for generic NTIs more variable than their corresponding RLDs to demonstrate bioequivalence. Based on these results, the authors evaluate the fully replicated, 2-sequence, 2-treatment, 4-period crossover study design for NTI drugs where the test product demonstrates BE based on a scaled average bioequivalence criterion and a within-subject variability comparison criterion.

Erratum To: A Bioequivalence Approach for Generic Narrow Therapeutic Index Drugs: Evaluation of the Reference-Scaled Approach and Variability Comparison Criterion

The AAPS Journal. Nov, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25975618

Biopharmaceutic Risk Assessment of Brand and Generic Lamotrigine Tablets

Molecular Pharmaceutics. Jul, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26001027

The therapeutic equivalence of generic and brand name antiepileptic drugs has been questioned by neurologists and the epilepsy community. A potential contributor to such concerns is pharmaceutical quality. The objective was to assess the biopharmaceutic risk of brand name Lamictal 100 mg tablets and generic lamotrigine 100 mg tablets from several manufacturers. Lamotrigine was characterized in terms of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), including aqueous solubility and Caco-2 permeability. A panel of pharmaceutical quality tests was also performed on three batches of Lamictal, three batches of Teva generic, and one batch of each of four other generics: appearance, identity, assay, impurity, uniformity of dosage units, disintegration, dissolution, friability, and loss on drying. These market surveillance results indicate that all brand name and generic lamotrigine 100 mg tablets passed all tests and showed acceptable pharmaceutical quality and low biopharmaceutic risk. Lamotrigine was classified as a BCS class IIb drug, exhibiting pH-dependent aqueous solubility and dissolution. At pH 1.2 and 4.5, lamotrigine exhibited high solubility, whereas lamotrigine exhibited low solubility at pH 6.8, including non-sink dissolution. Lamotrigine showed high Caco-2 permeability. The apparent permeability (Papp) of lamotrigine was (73.7 ± 8.7) × 10(-6) cm/s in the apical-to-basolateral (AP-BL) direction and (41.4 ± 1.6) × 10(-6) cm/s in the BL-AP direction, which were higher than metoprolol's AP-BL Papp of (21.2 ± 0.9) × 10(-6) cm/s and BL-AP Papp of (34.6 ± 4.6) × 10(-6) cm/s. Overall, lamotrigine's favorable biopharmaceutics from a drug substance perspective and favorable quality characteristics from a tablet formulation perspective suggest that multisource lamotrigine tablets exhibit a low biopharmaceutic risk.

Generic Lamotrigine Versus Brand-name Lamictal Bioequivalence in Patients with Epilepsy: A Field Test of the FDA Bioequivalence Standard

Epilepsia. Sep, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26201987

To test the current U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) bioequivalence standard in a comparison of generic and brand-name drug pharmacokinetic (PK) performance in "generic-brittle" patients with epilepsy under clinical use conditions.

The Effect of Excipients on the Permeability of BCS Class III Compounds and Implications for Biowaivers

Pharmaceutical Research. Aug, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26286187

Currently, the FDA allows biowaivers for Class I (high solubility and high permeability) and Class III (high solubility and low permeability) compounds of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). Scientific evidence should be provided to support biowaivers for BCS Class I and Class III (high solubility and low permeability) compounds.

Effect of Common Excipients on the Oral Drug Absorption of Biopharmaceutics Classification System Class 3 Drugs Cimetidine and Acyclovir

Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Sep, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26375604

The objective was to assess the impact of larger than conventional amounts of 14 commonly used excipients on Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class 3 drug absorption in humans. Cimetidine and acyclovir were used as model class 3 drugs across three separate four-way crossover bioequivalence (BE) studies (n = 24 each) in healthy human volunteers, denoted as study 1A, 1B, and 2. In study 1A and 1B, three capsule formulations of each drug were manufactured, collectively involving 14 common excipients. Capsule formulations that incorporated hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) or magnesium stearate exhibited lower absorption. The cimetidine commercial solution contained sorbitol and also resulted in lower absorption. Hence, in study 2, two capsule formulations with lower amounts of HPMC and magnesium stearate, the sorbitol-containing commercial solution, and a sorbitol-free solution were assessed for BE. Overall, 12 common excipients were found in large amounts to not impact BCS class 3 drug absorption in humans, such that these excipients need not be qualitatively the same nor quantitatively very similar to reference, but rather simply be not more than the quantities studied here. Meanwhile, for each HPMC and microcrystalline cellulose, BCS class 3 biowaivers require these two excipients to be qualitatively the same and quantitatively very similar to the reference. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci.

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