Other Publications (1)
Articles by Werner Kühlbrandt in JoVE
Visualization of ATP Synthase Dimers in Mitochondria by Electron Cryo-tomography Karen M. Davies1, Bertram Daum1, Vicki A. M. Gold1, Alexander W. Mühleip1, Tobias Brandt1, Thorsten B. Blum1, Deryck J. Mills1, Werner Kühlbrandt1 1Department of Structural Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biophysics We present a protocol of how to collect and process electron cryo-tomograms of whole mitochondria. The technique provides detailed insights into the structure, function, and organization of large membrane protein complexes in native biological membranes.
Other articles by Werner Kühlbrandt on PubMed
Effect of a Lateral Step-up Exercise Protocol on Quadriceps and Lower Extremity Performance The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. Dec, 1993 | Pubmed ID: 8281177 Closed kinetic chain exercises have been promoted as more functional and more appropriate than open kinetic chain exercises. Limited research exists demonstrating the effect of closed kinetic chain exercise on quadriceps and lower extremity performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a lateral step-up exercise protocol on isokinetic quadriceps peak torque and the following lower extremity activities: 1) leg press, 2) maximal step-up repetitions with body weight plus 25%, 3) hop for distance, and 4) 6-m timed hop. Twenty subjects participated in a 4-week training period, and 18 subjects served as controls. For the experimental group, a repeated measure ANOVA comparing pretest and posttest values revealed significant improvements in the leg press (p < or = .05), step-ups (p < or = .05), hop for distance (p < or = .05), and hop for time (p < or = .05) and no significant increase in isokinetic quadriceps peak torque (p > or = .05). Over the course of the training period, weight used for the step-up exercise increased (p < or = .05), repetitions decreased (p < or = .05), and step-up work did not change (p > or = .05). For the control group, no significant change (p > or = .05) occurred in any variable. The inability of the isokinetic dynamometer to detect increases in quadriceps performance is important because the isokinetic values are frequently used as criteria for return to functional activities. We conclude that closed kinetic chain testing and exercise provide additional means to assess and rehabilitate the lower extremity.