In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (47)

Articles by William G. Telford in JoVE

Other articles by William G. Telford on PubMed

Detection of Localized Caspase Activity in Early Apoptotic Cells by Laser Scanning Cytometry

Cytometry. Feb, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 11813197

Caspase activation is a critical early step in the onset of apoptosis. Cell-permeable fluorogenic caspase substrates have proven valuable in detecting caspase activation by flow cytometry. Nevertheless, detection of early low-level caspase activation has been difficult using conventional area or peak fluorescence analysis by flow cytometry, despite the apparent presence of these cells as observed by microscopy. We describe a method utilizing maximum fluorescence pixel analysis by laser scanning cytometry (LSC) to detect early apoptotic cells.

Translocation of Cytoplasmic HSP70 Onto the Surface of EL-4 Cells During Apoptosis

Cell Proliferation. Aug, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 12153612

Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are involved in a variety of intracellular processes and can have both pro- and anti-apoptotic action. However, little is known about the role of HSPs in the progression of apoptosis. Translocation of HSPs to the surface of apoptotic cells is a previously observed phenomenon demonstrating participation of these proteins in execution of the terminal stages of apoptosis. In a previous study we showed that development of EL-4 lymphoma cell apoptosis in vitro is accompanied by elevation of surface HSP expression. In this study we used this model to analyse the relationship of HSP70 expression and its translocation to the cell surface during apoptosis with some key intracellular events. Our data demonstrate a synchronization of surface and intracellular HSP70 expression with bcl-2 expression, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration and caspase-3 activity. A maximum level of surface and intracellular HSP70 expression was observed at an irreversible phase of EL-4 cell apoptosis after mitochondrial potential depolarization. In addition, an enhancement of the relative level of cytoplasmic HSP70 translocation to the cell surface was concomitant with EL-4 cell apoptosis. However, the size of surface and intracellular pools of HSP70, increasing for initial and intermediate stages of cell death, decreased at the terminal phase of apoptosis. Western blot analysis of HSP70 in conditioned supernatant obtained from EL-4 cell tissue showed that the observed decrease of HSP70 cell content might be due to surface HSP70 shedding into the intercellular space.

CCR6 Colocalizes with CD18 and Enhances Adhesion to Activated Endothelial Cells in CCR6-transduced Jurkat T Cells

Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Sep, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 12193700

CCR6 is expressed by memory T cells (mTC) and is a requirement for efficient arrest of a subset of mTC to activated human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC) under physiologic shear stress. We now address whether CCR6 alone is sufficient to induce arrest of a model T cell line (Jurkat) that shows low expression of all CCRs tested (CCR1-10). Herein, we transduced Jurkat (JK) T cells expressing fucosyltransferase VII with a chimeric chemokine receptor consisting of CCR6 fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein. In contrast to the starting JK lines, the resulting cell line (JK fucosyltransferase VII-CCR6) migrated 6-fold better to CCL20 in chemotaxis assays, arrested in response to CCL20 that was immobilized to plastic, and demonstrated a 2.5-fold increase in adhesion to activated HDMEC (p = 0.001). Adhesion was blocked by anti-CD18 mAb (p = 0.005) but not by anti-CD49d mAb (p = 0.3). After arrest on recombinant substrates, CCR6 clustered on the surface as detected by real-time observation of enhanced green fluorescent protein fluorescence. Dual-label confocal microscopy revealed that LFA-1 (CD18 and CD11a), but not CXCR4, colocalized with clustered CCR6 in the presence of immobilized CCL20. Thus, the functional expression of CCR6 is sufficient to provide the chemokine signaling necessary to induce arrest of a JK T cell line to activated HDMEC. Clustering of CCR6 and coassociation with critical integrins may serve to strengthen adhesion between T cells and activated endothelial cells.

Tamoxifen and the Farnesyl Transferase Inhibitor FTI-277 Synergize to Inhibit Growth in Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Tumor Cell Lines

Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. Mar, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 12611458

Farnesyl transferase inhibitors (FTIs) serve to specifically inhibit farnesyl isoprenoid lipid modification of proteins. Although originally developed as anti-Ras oncoprotein drugs, it now appears that these compounds function independently of Ras. FTIs have been shown to inhibit transformation by a variety of mechanisms, including apoptosis involving cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Tamoxifen exhibits both anti-estrogenic and estrogenic properties and is widely used as an estrogen antagonist for the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER) positive human breast tumors. Tamoxifen can induce ER-dependent apoptosis in human breast tumor cells by a mechanism involving the Bcl2/mitochondrial arm of the apoptotic machinery. Since tamoxifen and FTIs may stimulate distinct components of the mitochondrial-based apoptotic machinery, we reasoned that their effects might be synergistic. Here we show that anti-estrogens and an FTI (FTI-277) synergize to inhibit cell growth and enhance cell death in ER positive, human breast tumor cell lines. However, the drugs exhibited only additive effects on an ER negative cell line. Analysis of treated ER positive T-47D cells demonstrated that a synergistic increase in apoptosis was induced, as measured by increased caspase 3 activity. Thus, tamoxifen and FTIs may synergize to promote apoptotic cell death in ER positive human breast tumor cells.

Proliferation Kinetics of Subpopulations of Human Marrow Cells Determined by Quantifying in Vivo Incorporation of [2H2]-glucose into DNA of S-phase Cells

Blood. Sep, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 12763933

This report investigated in vivo turnover kinetics of marrow hematopoietic progenitors and precursors using a recently developed stable isotope-mass spectrometric technique (SIMST). Human subjects were administered a 2-day infusion of 6,6-[2H2]-glucose, a nontoxic stable isotope-labeled form of glucose, which becomes incorporated into DNA of all S-phase cells. The percent [2H2]-glucose incorporated into DNA in the form of [2H2]-deoxyadenosine (%[2H2]-dA enrichment) was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The rate constant of replacement of unlabeled by labeled DNA strands (labeling kinetics) was used to calculate population turnover kinetics of CD34+ cells, CD133+ cells, and CD133-CD34+ cells. The observed mean replacement half-life (t1/2) was 2.6 days for CD34+ cells, 2.5 days for CD133-CD34+ cells, and 6.2 days for CD133+ cells. Results from the estimated rate constant of replacement of labeled by unlabeled DNA (delabeling kinetics) also demonstrated slower turnover rates for CD133+ cells than for CD133-CD34+ cells. Although there was a relatively rapid initial decrease in the %[2H2]-dA enrichment, low levels of labeled DNA persisted in CD34+ cells for at least 4 weeks. The results indicate the presence of subpopulations of CD34+ cells with relatively rapid turnover rates and subpopulations with a slower t1/2 of 28 days. Results also demonstrate that in vivo [2H2]-glucose-SIMST is sensitive enough to detect differences in turnover kinetics between erythroid and megakaryocyte lineage cells. These studies are the first to demonstrate the use of in vivo [2H2]-glucose-SIMST to measure in vivo turnover kinetics of subpopulations of CD34+ cells and precursors in healthy human subjects.

Analysis of Violet-excited Fluorochromes by Flow Cytometry Using a Violet Laser Diode

Cytometry. Part A : the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology. Jul, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 12820120

Low power violet laser diodes (VLDs) have been evaluated as potential replacements for water-cooled argon-ion and krypton-ion ultraviolet and violet lasers for DNA content analysis using the Hoechst dyes and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (Shapiro HMN, Perlmutter NG: Cytometry 44:133-136, 2001). In this study, we used a VLD to excite a variety of violet-excited fluorescent molecules important in biomedical analysis, including the fluorochromes Cascade Blue and Pacific Blue, the expressible fluorescent protein cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), and the fluorogenic alkaline phosphatase (AP) substrate 2-(5'-chloro-2'-phosphoryloxyphenyl)-6-chloro-4-(3H)-quinazoline (ELF-97; for endogenous AP detection and cell surface labeling with AP-conjugated antibodies).

Quantitative Comparison of Long-wavelength Alexa Fluor Dyes to Cy Dyes: Fluorescence of the Dyes and Their Bioconjugates

The Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry : Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society. Dec, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 14623938

Amine-reactive N-hydroxysuccinimidyl esters of Alexa Fluor fluorescent dyes with principal absorption maxima at about 555 nm, 633 nm, 647 nm, 660 nm, 680 nm, 700 nm, and 750 nm were conjugated to antibodies and other selected proteins. These conjugates were compared with spectrally similar protein conjugates of the Cy3, Cy5, Cy5.5, Cy7, DY-630, DY-635, DY-680, and Atto 565 dyes. As N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester dyes, the Alexa Fluor 555 dye was similar to the Cy3 dye, and the Alexa Fluor 647 dye was similar to the Cy5 dye with respect to absorption maxima, emission maxima, Stokes shifts, and extinction coefficients. However, both Alexa Fluor dyes were significantly more resistant to photobleaching than were their Cy dye counterparts. Absorption spectra of protein conjugates prepared from these dyes showed prominent blue-shifted shoulder peaks for conjugates of the Cy dyes but only minor shoulder peaks for conjugates of the Alexa Fluor dyes. The anomalous peaks, previously observed for protein conjugates of the Cy5 dye, are presumably due to the formation of dye aggregates. Absorption of light by the dye aggregates does not result in fluorescence, thereby diminishing the fluorescence of the conjugates. The Alexa Fluor 555 and the Alexa Fluor 647 dyes in protein conjugates exhibited significantly less of this self-quenching, and therefore the protein conjugates of Alexa Fluor dyes were significantly more fluorescent than those of the Cy dyes, especially at high degrees of labeling. The results from our flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and immunohistochemistry experiments demonstrate that protein-conjugated, long-wavelength Alexa Fluor dyes have advantages compared to the Cy dyes and other long-wavelength dyes in typical fluorescence-based cell labeling applications.

Side Population Keratinocytes Resembling Bone Marrow Side Population Stem Cells Are Distinct from Label-retaining Keratinocyte Stem Cells

The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Nov, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 14708612

Very primitive hematopoietic stem cells have been identified as side population cells based on their ability to efflux a fluorescent vital dye, Hoechst 33342. In this study we show that keratinocytes with the same side population phenotype are also present in the human epidermis. Although side population keratinocytes have the same dye-effluxing phenotype as bone marrow side population cells and can be blocked by verapamil, they do not express increased levels of the ABCG2 transporter that is believed to be responsible for the bone marrow side population phenotype. Because bone marrow side population cells have stem cell characteristics, we sought to determine if side population keratinocytes represent a keratinocyte stem cell population by comparing side population keratinocytes with a traditional keratinocyte stem cell candidate, label-retaining keratinocytes. Flow cytometric analyses demonstrated that side population keratinocytes have a different cell surface phenotype (low beta1 integrin and low alpha6 integrin expression) than label-retaining keratinocytes and represent a unique population of keratinocytes distinctly different from the traditional keratinocyte stem cell candidate. Future in vivo studies will be required to analyze the function of side population keratinocytes in epidermal homeostasis and to determine if side population keratinocytes have characteristics of keratinocyte stem cells.

Discrimination of the Hoechst Side Population in Mouse Bone Marrow with Violet and Near-ultraviolet Laser Diodes

Cytometry. Part A : the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology. Jan, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 14699605

Discrimination of stem cells with flow cytometric analysis of Hoechst 33342 efflux by the ABCG2 transporter (termed the Hoechst side population, or SP technique) is a valuable methodology for identifying bone marrow progenitors enriched with stem cells. Unfortunately, it requires a ultraviolet (UV) laser source, usually necessitating an expensive and maintenance-intensive argon- or krypton-ion gas laser on a large-scale cell sorter. In this study, we evaluated the ability of recently available violet and near-UV laser diodes to discriminate Hoechst SP on smaller cuvette-based flow cytometers.

Multiparametric Analysis of Apoptosis by Flow and Image Cytometry

Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 14976365

Flow cytometric assays for apoptosis are now in widespread use. The multiparametric nature of flow cytometry allows multiple assays for several apoptotic characteristics to be combined in a single sample, providing a powerful tool for elucidating the complex progression of apoptotic death in a variety of cell types. This chapter describes one such assay, allowing simultaneous analysis of caspase activation, annexin V binding to "flipped" phosphatidylserine residues and membrane permeability to DNA binding dyes. This multidimensional approach to analyzing apoptosis provides far more information than single-parameter assays that provide only an ambiguous "percent apoptotic" result, given that multiple early, intermediate, and late apoptotic stages can be visualized simultaneously. This multiparametric approach is also amenable to a variety of flow cytometric instrumentation, both old and new.

Telomere Length Measurement by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization and Flow Cytometry

Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 14976379

Telomere length is an important measure of cellular differentiation and progression to senescence. Flow cytometric assays for measuring telomere length have become an important adjunct to more laborious Southern blotting methods; telomere length can be estimated with considerable accuracy in small numbers of individual cells by flow cytometry, and can be measured in cell population subsets with simultaneous fluorescent immunophenotyping. In this chapter, we describe the standard flow cytometric assay for measuring telomere length, including the incorporation of fluorochrome-conjugated antibody immunolabeling for measurement in cell subsets.

Small Lasers in Flow Cytometry

Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 14976380

Laser technology has made tremendous advances in recent years, particularly in the area of diode and diode-pumped solid state sources. Flow cytometry has been a direct beneficiary of these advances, as these small, low-maintenance, inexpensive lasers with reasonable power outputs are integrated into flow cytometers. In this chapter we review the contribution and potential of solid-state lasers to flow cytometry, and show several examples of these novel sources integrated into production flow cytometers. Technical details and critical parameters for successful application of these lasers for biomedical analysis are reviewed.

Analysis of UV-excited Fluorochromes by Flow Cytometry Using Near-ultraviolet Laser Diodes

Cytometry. Part A : the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology. Sep, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15351984

Violet laser diodes have become common and reliable laser sources for benchtop flow cytometers. While these lasers are very useful for a variety of violet and some ultraviolet-excited fluorochromes (e.g., DAPI), they do not efficiently excite most UV-stimulated probes. In this study, the next generation of InGaN near-UV laser diodes (NUVLDs) emitting in the 370-375-nm range have been evaluated as laser sources for cuvette-based flow cytometers.

Semiconductor Nanocrystal Conjugates, FISH and PH

Nature Methods. Oct, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 16179915

Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Pharmacodynamic Analysis by Multiparameter Flow Cytometry

Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science. 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 16254255

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are a promising new class of anticancer drug. The aim of this study was to develop a versatile and sensitive technique for the pharmacodynamic (PD) assessment of HDAC inhibitor activity as monotherapy and in combination therapy. A multiparameter flow cytometric assay was developed initially in healthy donor lymphocytes and leukemia cell lines, and then tested in peripheral blood of solid tumor patients and in bone marrow aspirates of leukemia patients on phase I trials of the HDAC inhibitor MS-275. A technique was developed that allows highly sensitive single parameter determination of HDAC inhibitor activity in as little as 50 microl of whole blood. Multiparameter analysis enabled correlation on a single cell basis of protein acetylation with biologically relevant markers including cell lineage antigens, an apoptosis marker, and PD markers of other anti-cancer agents. The level of protein acetylation can be readily detected and quantified in peripheral blood or in bone marrow aspirates by flow cytometric analysis. The technique described has significant advantages for the PD assessment of HDAC inhibitors as monotherapy and as a component of combination therapy trials.

Dysregulation of IL-15-mediated T-cell Homeostasis in TGF-beta Dominant-negative Receptor Transgenic Mice

Blood. Oct, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16788095

T-cell subpopulations, defined by their expression of CD4, CD8, naive, and memory cell-surface markers, occupy distinct homeostatic compartments that are regulated primarily by cytokines. CD8+ memory T cells, as defined by CD44(hi) surface expression, are dependent on IL-15 as a positive regulator of their homeostatic maintenance. Manipulation of IL-15 signaling through gene aberration, overexpression, or receptor alterations has been shown to dramatically affect T-cell homeostasis, with overexpression leading to fatal leukemia. Here we show that TGF-beta is the critical negative regulator of murine CD8+ memory T-cell homeostasis with direct opposition to the positive effects of IL-15. This negative regulation is mediated, at least in part, by the ability of TGF-beta to modulate expression of the beta-chain of the IL-15 receptor, thus establishing a central axis between these 2 cytokines for homeostatic control of CD8+ memory T-cell populations. These data establish TGF-beta as a critical and dominant tumor-suppressor pathway opposing IL-15-mediated CD8+ T-cell expansion and potential malignant transformation.

The Minimal Instrumentation Requirements for Hoechst Side Population Analysis: Stem Cell Analysis on Low-cost Flow Cytometry Platforms

Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). Nov, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16888279

The Hoechst side population (SP) technique is a critical method of identifying stem cells and early progenitors in rodent, nonhuman primate, and human hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic tissues. In this technique, the cell-permeable DNA-binding dye Hoechst 33342 is loaded into the cell population of interest; stem cells and early progenitors subsequently pump this dye out via an ATP-binding cassette membrane pump-dependent mechanism, resulting in a low-fluorescence "tail" (the SP) when the cells are analyzed by flow cytometry. This population contains stem cells and early progenitors. One significant drawback of this method is the requirement of an UV laser to excite the Hoechst 33342. Unfortunately, flow cytometers equipped with UV sources are expensive to own and operate and are not readily available to many laboratories or institutions. In the interests of designing a less expensive flow cytometric system for stem cell analysis, we determined the minimum UV excitation and instrumentation requirements for measuring Hoechst SP. Less than 3 mW of UV laser output was required for adequate resolution of Hoechst SP on two cuvette-based flow cytometers, one of which was a simple, inexpensive benchtop analyzer (the Quanta Analyzer; NPE Systems). Furthermore, Hoechst SP could also be adequately resolved on this epifluorescence-based cytometer platform using two nonlaser UV sources, a mercury arc lamp with a UV bandpass filter and a UV-emitting light-emitting diode. These results suggest that an economical flow cytometric system can be designed that is capable of resolving Hoechst SP, with a cost far lower than most UV laser-equipped commercial systems. An inexpensive system of this type would make Hoechst SP analysis available to a much broader group of stem cell investigators.

The Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Genistein Blocks HIV-1 Infection in Primary Human Macrophages

Virus Research. Feb, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17030448

Binding of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) to its cellular receptors elicits a variety of signaling events, including the activation of select tyrosine kinases. To evaluate the potential role of such signaling, we examined the effects of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, on HIV-1 entry and infection of human macrophages using a variety of assays. Without altering cell viability, cell surface expression of CD4 and CCR5 or their abilities to interact with Env, genistein inhibited infection of macrophages by reporter gene-encoding, beta-lactamase containing, or wild type virions, as well as Env-mediated cell-fusion. The observation that genistein blocked virus infection if applied before, during or immediately after the infection period, but not 24h later; coupled with a more pronounced inhibition of infection in the reporter gene assays as compared to both beta-lactamase and p24 particle entry assays, imply that genistein exerts its inhibitory effects on both entry and early post-entry steps. These findings suggest that other exploitable targets, or steps, of the HIV-1 infection process may exist and could serve as additional opportunities for the development of new therapeutics.

Side Population Analysis Using a Violet-excited Cell-permeable DNA Binding Dye

Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). Apr, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17185610

Hoechst 33342 side population (SP) analysis is a common method for identifying stem cells in mammalian hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic tissues. Although widely employed for stem cell analysis, this method requires an ultraviolet (UV) laser to excite Hoechst 33342. Flow cytometers equipped with UV sources are not common because of the cost of both the laser and optics that can transmit light UV light. Violet laser sources are inexpensive and are now common fixtures on flow cytometers, but have been previously shown to provide insufficient Hoechst dye excitation for consistent resolution of SP cells. One solution to this problem is to identify additional fluorescent substrates with the same pump specificity as Hoechst 33342, but with better violet excitation characteristics. DyeCycle Violet reagent has emission characteristics similar to those of Hoechst 33342, but with a longer wavelength excitation maxima (369 nm). When this dye is loaded into hematopoietic cells, a sharply resolved side population was also observed, similar in appearance to that seen with Hoechst 33342. Unlike Hoechst SP, DCV SP was similar in appearance with both violet and UV excitation. DCV SP could be inhibited fumitremorgin C, and showed the same membrane pump specificity as Hoechst 33342. Simultaneous immunophenotyping with stem cell markers in mouse bone marrow demonstrated that DCV SP was restricted to the stem cell lineage(-) Sca-1(+) c-kit(+) cells population, as is Hoechst SP. Pending confirmation by functional analysis of DCV SP cells, these results suggest that DCV efflux identified approximately the same stem cell population as did Hoechst 33342 efflux. Substituting DCV for Hoechst 33342 in the SP technique may, therefore, allow side population analysis on flow cytometers with violet lasers.

Stem Cell Activity of Human Side Population and Alpha6 Integrin-bright Keratinocytes Defined by a Quantitative in Vivo Assay

Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). Mar, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17332515

The isolation and characterization of living human epithelial stem cells is difficult because distinguishing cell surface markers have not been identified with certainty. Side population keratinocytes (SP-KCs) that efflux Hoechst 33342 fluorescent dye, analogous to bone marrow-derived side population (SP) hematopoietic stem cells, have been identified in human skin, but their potential to function as keratinocyte stem cells (KSCs) in vivo is not known. On the other hand, human keratinocyte populations that express elevated levels of beta1 and alpha6 integrins and are distinct from SP-KCs, which express low levels of integrins, may be enriched for KSCs based on reported results of in vitro cell culture assays. When in vitro assays were used to measure total cell output of human SP-KCs and integrin-bright keratinocytes, we could not document their superior long-term proliferative activity versus unfractionated keratinocytes. To further assess the KSC characteristics in SP-KCs and integrin-bright keratinocytes, we used an in vivo competitive repopulation assay in which bioengineered human epidermis containing competing keratinocyte populations with different human major histocompatibility (MHC) class I antigens were grafted onto immunocompromised mice, and the intrinsic MHC class I antigens are used to quantify expansion of competing populations. In these in vivo studies, human SP-KCs showed little competitive expansion in vivo and were not enriched for KSCs. In contrast, keratinocytes expressing elevated levels of alpha6 integrin and low levels of CD71 (alpha6-bright/CD71-dim) expanded over 200-fold during the 33-week in vivo study. These results definitively demonstrate that human alpha6-bright/CD71-dim keratinocytes are enriched with KSCs, whereas SP-KCs are not.

New Lasers for Flow Cytometry: Filling the Gaps

Nature Methods. Sep, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17762872

Granzyme B Activity in Target Cells Detects Attack by Cytotoxic Lymphocytes

Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Sep, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17785818

Lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity via granule exocytosis operates by the perforin-mediated transfer of granzymes from CTLs and NK cells into target cells where caspase activation and other death pathways are triggered. Granzyme B (GzB) is a major cytotoxic effector in this pathway, and its fate in target cells has been studied by several groups using immunodetection. In this study, we have used a newly developed cell-permeable fluorogenic GzB substrate to measure this protease activity in three different living targets following contact with cytotoxic effectors. Although no GzB activity is measurable in CTL or NK92 effector cells, this activity rapidly becomes detectable throughout the target cytoplasm after effector-target engagement. We have combined the GzB substrate with a second fluorogenic substrate selective for caspase 3 to allow both flow cytometry and fluorescence confocal microscopy studies of cytotoxicity. With both effectors, caspase 3 activity appears subsequent to that of GzB inside all three targets. Overexpression of Bcl-2 in target cells has minimal effects on lysis, NK- or CTL-delivered GzB activity, or activation of target caspase 3. Detection of target GzB activity followed by caspase 3 activation provides a unique readout of a potentially lethal injury delivered by cytotoxic lymphocytes.

Behavior of Human Foreskin Keratinocytes Expressing a Hair Follicle Stem Cell Marker CD200

The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. May, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 17989725

Solid State Yellow and Orange Lasers for Flow Cytometry

Cytometry. Part A : the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology. Jun, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18449918

Diode and DPSS lasers emitting a variety of wavelengths are now commonly incorporated into flow cytometers, greatly increasing our capacity to excite a wide variety of fluorochromes. Until recently, however, virtually no practical technology existed for generating yellow or orange laser light for flow cytometry that was compatible with smaller instrumentation. In this study, we evaluate several new solid state laser systems that emit from the 570 to 600 nm as excitation sources for flow cytometry. DPSS 580, 589, and 592 nm sources were integrated into a cuvette-based flow cytometer (BD LSR II) and a stream-in-air cell sorter (FACSVantage DiVa), and used to excite a variety of yellow, orange, and red excited fluorochromes, including Texas Red, APC, and its tandem conjugates, and the genetically encoded red fluorescent protein HcRed and the more recently developed Katushka. All laser sources were successfully incorporated into the indicated flow cytometry platforms. The yellow and orange sources (particularly 592 nm) were ideal for exciting Texas Red, and provided excitation of APC and its tandems that was comparable to a traditional red laser source, albeit at higher power levels than red sources. Yellow and orange laser light was optimal for exciting HcRed and Katushka. Practical yellow and orange laser sources are now available for flow cytometry. This technology fills an important gap in the laser wavelengths available for flow, now almost any fluorochrome requiring visible light excitation can be accommodated.

Supercontinuum White Light Lasers for Flow Cytometry

Cytometry. Part A : the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology. May, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19072836

Excitation of fluorescent probes for flow cytometry has traditionally been limited to a few discrete laser lines, an inherent limitation in our ability to excite the vast array of fluorescent probes available for cellular analysis. In this report, we have used a supercontinuum (SC) white light laser as an excitation source for flow cytometry. By selectively filtering the wavelength of interest, almost any laser wavelength in the visible spectrum can be separated and used for flow cytometric analysis. The white light lasers used in this study were integrated into a commercial flow cytometry platform, and a series of high-transmission bandpass filters used to select wavelength ranges from the blue (approximately 480 nm) to the long red (>700 nm). Cells labeled with a variety of fluorescent probes or expressing fluorescent proteins were then analyzed, in comparison with traditional lasers emitting at wavelengths similar to the filtered SC source. Based on a standard sensitivity metric, the white light laser bandwidths produced similar excitation levels to traditional lasers for a wide variety of fluorescent probes and expressible proteins. Sensitivity assessment using fluorescent bead arrays confirmed that the SC laser and traditional sources resulted in similar levels of detection sensitivity. Supercontinuum white light laser sources therefore have the potential to remove a significant barrier in flow cytometric analysis, namely the limitation of excitation wavelengths. Almost any visible wavelength range can be made available for excitation, allowing access to virtually any fluorescent probe, and permitting "fine-tuning" of excitation wavelength to particular probes.

Quantum Dots Thermal Stability Improves Simultaneous Phenotype-specific Telomere Length Measurement by FISH-flow Cytometry

Journal of Immunological Methods. May, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19268672

Telomere length analysis has been greatly simplified by the quantitative flow cytometry technique FISH-flow. In this method, a fluorescein-labeled synthetic oligonucleotide complementary to the telomere terminal repeat sequence is hybridized to the telomere sequence and the resulting fluorescence measured by flow cytometry. This technique has supplanted the traditional laborious Southern blot telomere length measurement techniques in many laboratories, and allows single cell analysis of telomere length in high-throughput sample formats. Nevertheless, the harsh conditions required for telomere probe annealing (82 degrees C) has made it difficult to successfully combine this technique with simultaneous immunolabeling. Most traditional organic fluorescent probes (i.e. fluorescein, phycoerythrin, etc.) have limited thermal stability and do not survive the high temperature annealing process, despite efforts to covalently crosslink the antigen-antibody-fluorophore complex. This loss of probe fluorescence has made it difficult to measure FISH-flow in complex lymphocyte populations, and has generally forced investigators to use fluorescent-activated cell sorting to pre-separate their populations, a laborious technique that requires prohibitively large numbers of cells. In this study, we have substituted quantum dots (nanoparticles) for traditional fluorophores in FISH-flow. Quantum dots were demonstrated to possess much greater thermal stability than traditional low molecular weight and phycobiliprotein fluorophores. Quantum dot antibody conjugates directed against monocyte and T cell antigens were found to retain most of their fluorescence following the high temperature annealing step, allowing simultaneous fluorescent immunophenotyping and telomere length measurement. Since quantum dots have very narrow emission bandwidths, we were able to analyze multiple quantum dot antibody conjugates (Qdot 605, 655 and 705) simultaneously with FISH-flow measurement to assess the age-associated decline in telomere length in both human monocytes and T cell subsets. With quantum dot immunolabeling, the mean decrease rate in telomere length for CD4+ cells was calculated at 41.8 bp/year, very close to previously reported values using traditional flow-FISH and Southern blotting. This modification to the traditional flow-FISH technique should therefore allow simultaneous fluorescent immunophenotyping and telomere length measurement, permitting complex cell subset-specific analysis in small numbers of cells without the requirement for prior cell sorting.

Cell Lines As Candidate Reference Materials for Quality Control of ERBB2 Amplification and Expression Assays in Breast Cancer

Clinical Chemistry. Jul, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19443566

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is an important biomarker whose status plays a pivotal role in therapeutic decision-making for breast cancer patients and in determining their clinical outcomes. Ensuring the accuracy and reproducibility of HER2 assays by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) requires a reliable standard for monitoring assay sensitivity and specificity, and for assessing methodologic variation. A prior NIST workshop addressed this need by reaching a consensus to create cell lines as reference materials for HER2 testing.

Green Fiber Lasers: an Alternative to Traditional DPSS Green Lasers for Flow Cytometry

Cytometry. Part A : the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology. Dec, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19777600

Green and yellow diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) lasers (532 and 561 nm) have become common fixtures on flow cytometers, due to their efficient excitation of phycoerythrin (PE) and its tandems, and their ability to excite an expanding array of expressible red fluorescent proteins. Nevertheless, they have some disadvantages. DPSS 532-nm lasers emit very close to the fluorescein bandwidth, necessitating optical modifications to permit detection of fluorescein and GFP. DPSS 561-nm lasers likewise emit very close to the PE detection bandwidth and also cause unwanted excitation of APC and its tandems, requiring high levels of crossbeam compensation to reduce spectral overlap into the PE tandems. In this article, we report the development of a new generation of green fiber lasers that can be engineered to emit in the range between 532 and 561 nm. A 550-nm green fiber laser was integrated into both a BD LSR II cuvette and FACSVantage DiVa jet-in-air cell sorter. This laser wavelength avoided both the fluorescein and PE bandwidths and provided better excitation of PE and the red fluorescent proteins DsRed and dTomato than a power-matched 532 nm source. Excitation at 550 nm also caused less incidental excitation of APC and its tandems, reducing the need for crossbeam compensation. Excitation in the 550 nm range, therefore, proved to be a good compromise between 532- and 561-nm sources. Fiber laser technology is, therefore, providing the flexibility necessary for precisely matching laser wavelengths to our flow cytometry applications.

Stem Cell Side Population Analysis and Sorting Using DyeCycle Violet

Current Protocols in Cytometry. Jan, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20069528

Hoechst side population (SP) analysis has proven to be a valuable technique for identifying and sorting stem and early progenitor cells in a variety of tissues and species. In this method, the DNA binding dye Hoechst 33342 is loaded into the cell population of interest; stem cells preferentially exclude this dye, and these low-fluorescence cells can be detected by flow cytometry. However, Hoechst SP analysis usually requires a flow cytometer equipped with an ultraviolet laser source for optimal performance. Unfortunately, ultraviolet lasers are expensive and are not common fixtures on flow cytometers. Violet laser diodes emitting in the 395- to 410-nm range are less expensive and have become much more common on flow cytometers, but do not provide optimal excitation of Hoechst 33342. DyeCycle Violet is a cell-permeable DNA binding dye with a chemical structure similar to Hoechst 33342, but with a longer excitation maximum. DyeCycle Violet can be substituted for Hoechst 33342 when performing side population analysis on a cytometer with a violet laser source. The procedure for DyeCycle Violet labeling for side population is described, as well as the limitations particular to this dye.

Regulatory T Cells and Human Myeloid Dendritic Cells Promote Tolerance Via Programmed Death Ligand-1

PLoS Biology. Feb, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20126379

Immunotherapy using regulatory T cells (Treg) has been proposed, yet cellular and molecular mechanisms of human Tregs remain incompletely characterized. Here, we demonstrate that human Tregs promote the generation of myeloid dendritic cells (DC) with reduced capacity to stimulate effector T cell responses. In a model of xenogeneic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), allogeneic human DC conditioned with Tregs suppressed human T cell activation and completely abrogated posttransplant lethality. Tregs induced programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression on Treg-conditioned DC; subsequently, Treg-conditioned DC induced PD-L1 expression in vivo on effector T cells. PD-L1 blockade reversed Treg-conditioned DC function in vitro and in vivo, thereby demonstrating that human Tregs can promote immune suppression via DC modulation through PD-L1 up-regulation. This identification of a human Treg downstream cellular effector (DC) and molecular mechanism (PD-L1) will facilitate the rational design of clinical trials to modulate alloreactivity.

Dynamics and Mechanisms of Quantum Dot Nanoparticle Cellular Uptake

Journal of Nanobiotechnology. Jun, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20550705

The rapid growth of the nanotechnology industry and the wide application of various nanomaterials have raised concerns over their impact on the environment and human health. Yet little is known about the mechanism of cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of nanoparticles. An array of nanomaterials has recently been introduced into cancer research promising for remarkable improvements in diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Among them, quantum dots (QDs) distinguish themselves in offering many intrinsic photophysical properties that are desirable for targeted imaging and drug delivery.

Multiparametric Analysis of Apoptosis by Flow Cytometry

Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21116985

Flow cytometry is the most widely used technology for analyzing apoptosis. The multiparametric nature of flow cytometry allows several apoptotic characteristics to be combined in a single sample, making it a powerful tool for analyzing the complex progression of apoptotic death. This chapter provides guidelines for combining caspase detection, annexin V binding, DNA dye exclusion, and other single apoptotic assays into multiparametric assays.This approach to analyzing apoptosis provides far more information than single parameter assays that provide only an ambiguous "percent apoptotic" result, given that multiple early, intermediate and late apoptotic stages can be visualized simultaneously. This multiparametric approach is also amenable to a variety of flow cytometric instrumentation, both old and new.

Key Role for IL-21 in Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jun, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21593413

IL-21 is a pleiotropic type 1 cytokine that shares the common cytokine receptor γ-chain, γ(c), with IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, and IL-15. IL-21 is most homologous to IL-2. These cytokines are encoded by adjacent genes, but they are functionally distinct. Whereas IL-2 promotes development of regulatory T cells and confers protection from autoimmune disease, IL-21 promotes differentiation of Th17 cells and is implicated in several autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes and systemic lupus erythematosus. However, the roles of IL-21 and IL-2 in CNS autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and uveitis have been controversial. Here, we generated Il21-mCherry/Il2-emGFP dual-reporter transgenic mice and showed that development of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) correlated with the presence of T cells coexpressing IL-21 and IL-2 into the retina. Furthermore, Il21r(-/-) mice were more resistant to EAU development than wild-type mice, and adoptive transfer of Il21r(-/-) T cells induced much less severe EAU, underscoring the need for IL-21 in the development of this disease and suggesting that blocking IL-21/γ(c)-signaling pathways may provide a means for controlling CNS auto-inflammatory diseases.

Lasers in Flow Cytometry

Methods in Cell Biology. 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21704847

Laser technology has advanced tremendously since the first gas lasers were incorporated into early flow cytometers. Gas lasers have been largely replaced by solid-state laser technology, making virtually any desirable visible light wavelength available for flow cytometry. Multiwavelength, white light, and wavelength tunable lasers are poised to enhance our analytical capabilities even further. In this chapter, I summarize the role that lasers play in cytometry, and the practical characteristics that make a laser appropriate for flow cytometry. I then review the latest single wavelength lasers available for flow cytometry, and how they can be used to excite the ever-expanding array of available fluorochromes. Finally, I review the contribution and potential of the latest tunable laser technology to flow cytometry, and show several examples of these novel sources integrated into production instruments. Technical details and critical parameters for successful application of these lasers for biomedical analysis are covered in depth.

Identification and Characterization of Tumor-initiating Cells in Human Primary Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Feb, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22011906

Primary human squamous cell carcinomas (SCCas) are heterogeneous invasive tumors with proliferating outer layers and inner differentiating cell masses. To determine if tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are present in SCCas, we utilized newly developed reliable in vitro and in vivo xenograft assays that propagate human SCCas, and demonstrated that a small subset of SCCa cells (∼1%) expressing Prominin-1 (CD133) in the outer layers of SCCas were highly enriched for TICs (∼1/400) compared with unsorted SCCa cells (TICs ∼1/10(6)). Xenografts of CD133+ SCCas recreated the original SCCa tumor histology and organizational hierarchy, whereas CD133- cells did not, and only CD133+ cells demonstrated the capacity for self-renewal in serial transplantation studies. We present a model of human SCCas in which tumor projections expand with outer leading edges that contain CD133+ TICs. Successful cancer treatment will likely require that the TICs identified in cancers be targeted therapeutically. The demonstration that TICs are present in SCCas and are enriched in a CD133- expressing subpopulation has not been, to our knowledge, previously reported.

Flow Cytometry of Fluorescent Proteins

Methods (San Diego, Calif.). Jul, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22293036

Fluorescent proteins are now a critical tool in all areas of biomedical research. In this article, we review the techniques required to use fluorescent proteins for flow cytometry, concentrating specifically on the excitation and emission requirements for each protein, and the specific equipment required for optimal use.

Stem Cell Identification by DyeCycle Violet Side Population Analysis

Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23179832

Hoechst side population (SP) analysis remains a critical technique for identifying stem cell and progenitor populations in hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic tissues, as well as potential cancer stem cells. More recently, DyeCycle Violet (DCV), a DNA binding dye structurally similar to Hoechst 33342 but with an excitation spectrum shifted toward the violet range, has also been used for SP analysis on flow cytometers equipped with violet laser diodes. In this chapter, we briefly review the history of this method and provide a detailed procedure. Critical parameters for good labeling, details on integrating simultaneous immunolabeling with DCV SP analysis, and proper data acquisition and analysis techniques are covered in detail.

CD200-expressing Human Basal Cell Carcinoma Cells Initiate Tumor Growth

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jan, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23292936

Smoothened antagonists directly target the genetic basis of human basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common of all cancers. These drugs inhibit BCC growth, but they are not curative. Although BCC cells are monomorphic, immunofluorescence microscopy reveals a complex hierarchical pattern of growth with inward differentiation along hair follicle lineages. Most BCC cells express the transcription factor KLF4 and are committed to terminal differentiation. A small CD200(+) CD45(-) BCC subpopulation that represents 1.63 ± 1.11% of all BCC cells resides in small clusters at the tumor periphery. By using reproducible in vivo xenograft growth assays, we determined that tumor initiating cell frequencies approximate one per 1.5 million unsorted BCC cells. The CD200(+) CD45(-) BCC subpopulation recreated BCC tumor growth in vivo with typical histological architecture and expression of sonic hedgehog-regulated genes. Reproducible in vivo BCC growth was achieved with as few as 10,000 CD200(+) CD45(-) cells, representing ~1,500-fold enrichment. CD200(-) CD45(-) BCC cells were unable to form tumors. These findings establish a platform to study the effects of Smoothened antagonists on BCC tumor initiating cell and also suggest that currently available anti-CD200 therapy be considered, either as monotherapy or an adjunct to Smoothened antagonists, in the treatment of inoperable BCC.

Lipopolysaccharide Induces IFN-γ Production in Human NK Cells

Frontiers in Immunology. 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23372571

Natural killer (NK) cells have been shown to play a regulatory role in sepsis. According to the current view, NK cells become activated via macrophages or dendritic cells primed by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Recently, TLR4 gene expression was detected in human NK cells suggesting the possibility of a direct action of LPS on NK cells. In this study, effects of LPS on NK cell cytokine production and cytotoxicity were studied using highly purified human NK cells. LPS was shown to induce IFN-γ production in the presence of IL-2 in NK cell populations containing>98% CD56(+) cells. Surprisingly, in the same experiments LPS decreased NK cell degranulation. No significant expression of markers related to blood dendritic cells, monocytes or T or B lymphocytes in the NK cell preparations was observed; the portions of HLA-DR(-bright), CD14(+), CD3(+), and CD20(+) cells amounted to less than 0.1% within the cell populations. No more than 0.2% of NK cells were shown to be slightly positive for surface TLR4 in our experimental system, although intracellular staining revealed moderate amounts of TLR4 inside the NK cell population. These cells were negative for surface CD14, the receptor participating in LPS recognition by TLR4. Incubation of NK cells with IL-2 or/and LPS did not lead to an increase in TLR4 surface expression. TLR4(-)CD56(+) NK cells isolated by cell sorting secreted IFN-γ in response to LPS. Antibody to TLR4 did not block the LPS-induced increase in IFN-γ production. We have also shown that R(e)-form of LPS lacking outer core oligosaccharide and O-antigen induces less cytokine production in NK cells than full-length LPS. We speculate that the polysaccharide fragments of LPS molecule may take part in LPS-induced IFN-γ production by NK cells. Collectively our data suggest the existence of a mechanism of LPS direct action on NK cells distinct from established TLR4-mediated signaling.

Donor-derived CD19-targeted T Cells Cause Regression of Malignancy Persisting After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Blood. Dec, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 24055823

New treatments are needed for B-cell malignancies persisting after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT). We conducted a clinical trial of allogeneic T cells genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeting the B-cell antigen CD19. T cells for genetic modification were obtained from each patient's alloHSCT donor. All patients had malignancy that persisted after alloHSCT and standard donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs). Patients did not receive chemotherapy prior to the CAR T-cell infusions and were not lymphocyte depleted at the time of the infusions. The 10 treated patients received a single infusion of allogeneic anti-CD19-CAR T cells. Three patients had regressions of their malignancies. One patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) obtained an ongoing complete remission after treatment with allogeneic anti-CD19-CAR T cells, another CLL patient had tumor lysis syndrome as his leukemia dramatically regressed, and a patient with mantle cell lymphoma obtained an ongoing partial remission. None of the 10 patients developed graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Toxicities included transient hypotension and fever. We detected cells containing the anti-CD19-CAR gene in the blood of 8 of 10 patients. These results show for the first time that donor-derived allogeneic anti-CD19-CAR T cells can cause regression of B-cell malignancies resistant to standard DLIs without causing GVHD.

ROS Production, Intracellular HSP70 Levels and Their Relationship in Human Neutrophils: Effects of Age

Oncotarget. Dec, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25514461

ROS production and intracellular HSP70 levels were measured in human neutrophils for three age groups: young (20-59 years), elders (60-89 years) and nonagenarians (90 years and older). Elders showed higher levels of spontaneous intracellular ROS content compared with young and nonagenarian groups, which had similar intracellular ROS levels. Zymosan-induced (non-spontaneous) extracellular ROS levels were also similar for young and nonagenarians but were lower in elders. However, spontaneous extracellular ROS production increased continuously with age. Correlation analysis revealed positive relationships between HSP70 levels and zymosan-stimulated ROS production in the elder group. This was consistent with a promoting role for HSP70 in ROS-associated neutrophils response to pathogens. No positive correlation between ROS production and intracellular HSP70 levels was found for groups of young people and nonagenarians. In contrast, significant negative correlations of some ROS and HSP70 characteriscics were found for neutrophils from young people and nonagenarians. The observed difference in ROS and HSP70 correlations in elders and nonagenarians might be associated with an increased risk of mortality in older individuals less than 90 years old.

MiR-155 Augments CD8+ T-cell Antitumor Activity in Lymphoreplete Hosts by Enhancing Responsiveness to Homeostatic γc Cytokines

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jan, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25548153

Lymphodepleting regimens are used before adoptive immunotherapy to augment the antitumor efficacy of transferred T cells by removing endogenous homeostatic "cytokine sinks." These conditioning modalities, however, are often associated with severe toxicities. We found that microRNA-155 (miR-155) enabled tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells to mediate profound antitumor responses in lymphoreplete hosts that were not potentiated by immune-ablation. miR-155 enhanced T-cell responsiveness to limited amounts of homeostatic γc cytokines, resulting in delayed cellular contraction and sustained cytokine production. miR-155 restrained the expression of the inositol 5-phosphatase Ship1, an inhibitor of the serine-threonine protein kinase Akt, and multiple negative regulators of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (Stat5), including suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (Socs1) and the protein tyrosine phosphatase Ptpn2. Expression of constitutively active Stat5a recapitulated the survival advantages conferred by miR-155, whereas constitutive Akt activation promoted sustained effector functions. Our results indicate that overexpression of miR-155 in tumor-specific T cells can be used to increase the effectiveness of adoptive immunotherapies in a cell-intrinsic manner without the need for life-threatening, lymphodepleting maneuvers.

Multiparametric Flow Cytometry Using Near-infrared Fluorescent Proteins Engineered from Bacterial Phytochromes

PloS One. 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25811854

Engineering of fluorescent proteins (FPs) has followed a trend of achieving longer fluorescence wavelengths, with the ultimate goal of producing proteins with both excitation and emission in the near-infrared (NIR) region of the spectrum. Flow cytometers are now almost universally equipped with red lasers, and can now be equipped with NIR lasers as well. Most red-shifted FPs of the GFP-like family are maximally excited by orange lasers (590 to 610 nm) not commonly found on cytometers. This has changed with the development of the iRFP series of NIR FPs from the protein family of bacterial phytochromes. The shortest wavelength variants of this series, iRFP670 and iRFP682 showed maximal excitation with visible red lasers. The longer wavelength variants iRFP702, iRFP713 and iRFP720 could be optimally excited by NIR lasers ranging from 685 to 730 nm. Pairs of iRFPs could be detected simultaneously by using red and NIR lasers. Moreover, a novel spectral cytometry technique, which relies on spectral deconvolution rather than optical filters, allowed spectra of all five iRFPs to be analyzed simultaneously with no spectral overlap. Together, the combination of iRFPs with the advanced flow cytometry will allow to first image tissues expressing iRFPs deep in live animals and then quantify individual cell intensities and sort out the distinct primary cell subpopulations ex vivo.

Near Infrared Lasers in Flow Cytometry

Methods (San Diego, Calif.). Jul, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25814439

Technology development in flow cytometry has closely tracked laser technology, the light source that flow cytometers almost exclusively use to excite fluorescent probes. The original flow cytometers from the 1970s and 1980s used large water-cooled lasers to produce only one or two laser lines at a time. Modern cytometers can take advantage of the revolution in solid state laser technology to use almost any laser wavelength ranging from the ultraviolet to the near infrared. Commercial cytometers can now be equipped with many small solid state lasers, providing almost any wavelength needed for cellular analysis. Flow cytometers are now equipped to analyze 20 or more fluorescent probes simultaneously, requiring multiple laser wavelengths. Instrument developers are now trying to increase this number by designing fluorescent probes that can be excited by laser wavelength at the "edges" of the visible light range, in the near ultraviolet and near-infrared region. A variety of fluorescent probes have been developed that excite with violet and long wavelength ultraviolet light; however, the near-infrared range (660-800 nm) has yet seen only exploitation in flow cytometry. Fortunately, near-infrared laser diodes and other solid state laser technologies appropriate for flow cytometry have been in existence for some time, and can be readily incorporated into flow cytometers to accelerate fluorescent probe development. The near infrared region represents one of the last "frontiers" to maximize the number of fluorescent probes that can be analyzed by flow cytometry. In addition, near infrared fluorescent probes used in biomedical tracking and imaging could also be employed for flow cytometry with the correct laser wavelengths. This review describes the available technology, including lasers, fluorescent probes and detector technology optimal for near infrared signal detection.

Near-ultraviolet Laser Diodes for Brilliant Ultraviolet Fluorophore Excitation

Cytometry. Part A : the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology. Dec, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25930008

Although multiple lasers are now standard equipment on most modern flow cytometers, ultraviolet (UV) lasers (325-365 nm) remain an uncommon excitation source for cytometry. Nd:YVO4 frequency-tripled diode pumped solid-state lasers emitting at 355 nm are now the primary means of providing UV excitation on multilaser flow cytometers. Although a number of UV excited fluorochromes are available for flow cytometry, the cost of solid-state UV lasers remains prohibitively high, limiting their use to all but the most sophisticated multilaser instruments. The recent introduction of the brilliant ultraviolet (BUV) series of fluorochromes for cell surface marker detection and their importance in increasing the number of simultaneous parameters for high-dimensional analysis has increased the urgency of including UV sources in cytometer designs; however, these lasers remain expensive. Near-UV laser diodes (NUVLDs), a direct diode laser source emitting in the 370-380 nm range, have been previously validated for flow cytometric analysis of most UV-excited probes, including quantum nanocrystals, the Hoechst dyes, and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. However, they remain a little-used laser source for cytometry, despite their significantly lower cost. In this study, the ability of NUVLDs to excite the BUV dyes was assessed, along with their compatibility with simultaneous brilliant violet (BV) labeling. A NUVLD emitting at 375 nm was found to excite most of the available BUV dyes at least as well as a UV 355 nm source. This slightly longer wavelength did produce some unwanted excitation of BV dyes, but at sufficiently low levels to require minimal additional compensation. NUVLDs are compact, relatively inexpensive lasers that have higher power levels than the newest generation of small 355 nm lasers. They can, therefore, make a useful, cost-effective substitute for traditional UV lasers in multicolor analysis involving the BUV and BV dyes.

Distinct IL-7 Signaling in Recent Thymic Emigrants Versus Mature Naïve T cells Controls T-cell Homeostasis

European Journal of Immunology. Jul, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27129922

IL-7 is essential for T-cell survival but its availability is limited in vivo. Consequently, all peripheral T cells, including recent thymic emigrants (RTEs) are constantly competing for IL-7 to survive. RTEs are required to replenish TCR diversity and rejuvenate the peripheral T-cell pool. However, it remains unknown how RTEs successfully compete with resident mature T cells for IL-7. Moreover, RTEs express low levels of IL-7 receptors, presumably rendering them even less competitive. Here, we show that, surprisingly, RTEs are more responsive to IL-7 than mature naïve T cells as demonstrated by markedly increased STAT5 phosphorylation upon IL-7 stimulation. Nonetheless, adoptive transfer of RTE cells into lymphopenic host mice resulted in slower IL-7-induced homeostatic proliferation and diminished expansion compared to naïve donor T cells. Mechanistically, we found that IL-7 signaling in RTEs preferentially upregulated expression of Bcl-2, which is anti-apoptotic but also anti-proliferative. In contrast, naïve T cells showed diminished Bcl-2 induction but greater proliferative response to IL-7. Collectively, these data indicate that IL-7 responsiveness in RTE is designed to maximize survival at the expense of reduced proliferation, consistent with RTE serving as a subpopulation of T cells rich in diversity but not in frequency.

Identification of Human Memory-Like NK Cells

Current Protocols in Cytometry. Jan, 2017  |  Pubmed ID: 28055112

Our understanding of NK biology is increased dramatically, a product of improved flow-cytometric techniques for analyzing these cells. NK cells undergo significant changes in repertoire during differentiation. A repeating stimulus, such as a cytomegalovirus infection, may result in accumulation of certain types of highly differentiated NK cells designated as memory-like, or adaptive NK cells. Adaptive NK cells are capable of rapid expansion and effective response to the recall stimulus. These cells differ significantly from conventional NK cells both functionally and phenotypically. Here we describe an approach for identification and analysis of adaptive NK cells in human peripheral blood. CD57-positive cells with high expression of activating-receptor NKG2C, increased expression of KIR receptors, lack of co-expression with inhibitory receptor NKG2A, and decreased expression of activating receptor NCR3 (NKp30) all characterize this cell type. The flow-cytometric method described below can identify this NK cell subset on a relatively simple flow cytometer. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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