Other Publications (13)
- Life Sciences
- Journal of Neurochemistry
- Journal of the Neurological Sciences
- Nuclear Medicine and Biology
- Neuromolecular Medicine
- Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism : Official Journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
- Cancer Research
- Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
- Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
- Neurosurgical Focus
- Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
- Bioconjugate Chemistry
Articles by Xukui Wang in JoVE
Funktionel Imaging af brunt fedt i mus med FDG micro-PET/CT Xukui Wang1, Laurie J. Minze2, Zheng-Zheng Shi1 1Department of Translational Imaging, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, 2Diabetes Research Center, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston En fremgangsmåde til funktionel imagografi af mus brunt fedtvæv (BAT) er beskrevet som kold-stimuleret optagelse af 18F-fluordeoxyglucose (FDG) i BAT ikke-invasivt vurderes med en standardiseret micro-PET/CT protokol. Denne fremgangsmåde er robust og følsom til at påvise forskelle i BAT-aktiviteter i musemodeller.
Other articles by Xukui Wang on PubMed
Radiolabeling and Biodistribution of Methyl 2-(methoxycarbonyl)-2-(methylamino) Bicyclo[2.1.1] -hexane -5-carboxylate, a Potential Neuroprotective Drug Life Sciences. Aug, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12865097 Methyl 2-(methoxycarbonyl) -2-(methylamino) bicyclo[2.1.1] -hexane -5-carboxylate (MMMHC) is developed as a potential neuroprotective drug. It was labeled with C-11 from the desmethyl precursor methyl 2-(methoxycarbonyl)-2-amino bicyclo[2.1.1]-hexane-5-carboxylate with [11C]methyl triflate in acetone solution at 60 degrees C with labeling yield of 69% and with radiochemical purity of >99%. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies in a normal rat showed that Methyl 2-(methoxycarbonyl)-2-([11C]methylamino)bicyclo[2.1.1]-hexane-5-carboxylate ([11C] MMMHC) accumulated mainly in the cortical brain areas after iv administration. Frontal cortex/cerebellum ratios in a rat brain were 8.0/6.0, 6.8/4.2, 6.3/4.3, 5.5/4.2 and 5.2/4.5 percent of the injected dose in 100 ml at 2 min, 5 min, 10 min, 20 min and 40 min respectively after i.v. injection. During 20-40 min, 2.9+/-0.4% of the total activity stayed in the brain. These results showed that MMMHC could be labeled with C-11 with high yield, and it passed the brain-blood barrier and accumulated in several brain regions.
3-Nitropropionic Acid-induced Neurotoxicity--assessed by Ultra High Resolution Positron Emission Tomography with Comparison to Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Journal of Neurochemistry. Jun, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15147513 To explore acute and long-term effects of 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced neurotoxicity, longitudinal positron emission tomography (PET) studies of energy metabolism and magnetic resonance spectroscopic (MRS) studies of neurochemicals were conducted in a rat model. The first injection of 3-NP (20 mg/kg i.p.) was followed by MRS study of neurochemicals and PET study of glucose utilization using [(18)F]2-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG). After that, 3-NP administration was done two times a day with a dose of 10 mg/kg i.p. until animals were symptomatic or for a maximum of 5 days combined with daily PET studies. Long-term effects were investigated 4 weeks and 4 months after cessation of 3-NP. These studies showed a significant inter-animal variation in response of 3-NP toxicity. Animals that developed large striatal lesions had decreased glucose utilization in the striatum and cortex 1 day after starting 3-NP injections. Similarly succinate and lactate/macromolecule levels were enhanced; these changes being, however, reversible. Progressive degeneration was observed by decreasing striatal glucose utilization and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and increasing choline. These observations paralleled with weight loss and deficits in behavior. Animals that did not develop lesions showed reversible enhancement in cortical glucose utilization and no change in striatal glucose utilization or neurochemicals or locomotor activity.
Cerebral PET Imaging and Histological Evidence of Transglutaminase Inhibitor Cystamine Induced Neuroprotection in Transgenic R6/2 Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease Journal of the Neurological Sciences. Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15792822 To investigate efficacy of cystamine induced neuroprotection, we conducted PET imaging studies of cerebral glucose metabolism with [(18)F]FDG (2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-d-glucose) and striatal dopamine D2 receptor function with [(11)C]raclopride in R6/2 transgenic Huntington mice. In the control mice, exponentially decreasing glucose utilization was observed in the striatum N(str) [SUV]=(41.75+/-11.80)(58,str)*exp(-(0.041+/-0.007)*t [days]); cortex N(cort) [SUV]=24.14+/-3.66)(58,cort)*exp(-(0.043+/-0.007)*t [days]); and cerebellum N(cer) [SUV]=(34.97+/-10.58)(58,cer)*exp(-(0.037+/-0.008)*t [days]) as a function of age starting at 58 days. Given that the underlying degeneration rate in the cystamine treated mice is similar to that observed in control animals, the protection coefficient (beta) calculated from the equation N(t)=N(58)*exp(-(1-beta)*k*t) was 0.133+/-0.035 for the striatum; 0.122+/-0.028 for the cortex and 0.224+/-00.042 for the cerebellum with a dose of 100 mg/kg. The 50 mg/kg cystamine dose provided significant protection only for the striatum and only minor protection was obtained using lower doses. Striatal binding potential of [(11)C]raclopride was 1.059+/-0.030 in the control mice, and enhanced in the cystamine treated animals in a dose dependent manner up to 1.245+/-0.063 using the 100 mg/kg dose. Histological analysis confirmed cystamine induced neuroprotection of striatal and cortical neurons and Nissl staining revealed that formation of cellular inclusions was reversed in a dose dependent manner. Cerebral imaging and histological evidence support the use of cystamine as a neuroprotective agent for Huntington's disease (HD) pathology.
Methoxyphenylethynyl, Methoxypyridylethynyl and Phenylethynyl Derivatives of Pyridine: Synthesis, Radiolabeling and Evaluation of New PET Ligands for Metabotropic Glutamate Subtype 5 Receptors Nuclear Medicine and Biology. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16026710 We have synthesized three different PET ligands to investigate the physiological function of metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptors (mGluR5) in vivo: 2-[(11)C]methyl-6-(2-phenylethynyl)pyridine ([(11)C]MPEP), 2-(2-(3-[(11)C]methoxyphenyl)ethynyl)pyridine ([(11)C]M-MPEP) and 2-(2-(5-[(11)C]methoxypyridin-3-yl)ethynyl)pyridine ([(11)C]M-PEPy). [(11)C]Methyl iodide was used to label the compounds under basic conditions, and a Pd(0) catalyst was applied to label [(11)C]MPEP in a Stille coupling reaction. In vivo microPET imaging studies of the functional accumulation of radiolabeled ligands were conducted in 35 rats (Sprague-Dawley, 8 weeks old male, weight of 300 g). Specific binding was tested using pre-administration of unlabeled mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(2-phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP) (10 mg/kg iv 5 min before radioactivity injection). In the radiolabeling of [(11)C]MPEP, [(11)C]M-MPEP and [(11)C]M-PEPy, a specific radioactivity of 700-1200 mCi/micromol and over 97% radiochemical purity were obtained. The microPET studies showed these three radiolabeled mGluR5 antagonists having the highest binding in the olfactory bulb followed by striatum, hippocampus and cortex. Pre-administration of the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP induced a 45.1% decrease in [(11)C]MPEP binding, a 59.7% decrease in [(11)C]M-MPEP binding and an 84.6% decrease in [(11)C]M-PEPy binding in the olfactory bulb at 5 min. The feasibility of synthesizing high-affinity and high-selectivity ligands for mGluR5 receptors and their suitability as PET imaging ligands for mGluR5 receptors in vivo are demonstrated.
Tryptamine Induces Tryptophanyl-tRNA Synthetase-mediated Neurodegeneration with Neurofibrillary Tangles in Human Cell and Mouse Models Neuromolecular Medicine. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17114825 The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other taupathies include neurofibrillary tangles and plaques. Despite the fact that only 2-10% of AD cases are associated with genetic mutations, no nontransgenic or metabolic models have been generated to date. The findings of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) in plaques of the AD brain were reported recently by the authors. Here it is shown that expression of cytoplasmic-TrpRS is inversely correlated with neurofibrillary degeneration, whereas a nonionic detergent-insoluble presumably aggregated TrpRS is simultaneously accumulated in human cells treated by tryptamine, a metabolic tryptophan analog that acts as a competitive inhibitor of TrpRS. TrpRSN- terminal peptide self-assembles in double-helical fibrils in vitro. Herein, tryptamine causes neuropathy characterized by motor and behavioral deficits, hippocampal neuronal loss, neurofibrillary tangles, amyloidosis, and glucose decrease in mice. Tryptamine induced the formation of helical fibrillary tangles in both hippocampal neurons and glia. Taken together with the authors' previous findings of tryptamine-induced nephrotoxicity and filamentous tangle formation in kidney cells, the authors' data indicates a general role of tryptamine in cell degeneration and loss. It is concluded that tryptamine as a component of a normal diet can induce neurodegeneration at the concentrations, which might be consumed along with food. Tryptophan-dependent tRNAtrp aminoacylation catalyzed by TrpRS can be inhibited by its substrate tryptophan at physiological concentrations was demonstrated. These findings indicate that the dietary supplementation with tryptophan as a tryptamine competitor may not counteract the deleterious influence of tryptamine. The pivotal role of TrpRS in protecting against neurodegeneration is suggested, providing an insight into the pathogenesis and a possible treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
Evaluation of Four Pyridine Analogs to Characterize 6-OHDA-induced Modulation of MGluR5 Function in Rat Brain Using MicroPET Studies Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism : Official Journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17299451 Micro-positron emission tomography imaging studies were conducted to characterize modulation of metabotropic glutamate subtype-5 receptor (mGluR5) function in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced rat model of Parkinson's disease using four analogical PET ligands: 2-[(11)C]methyl-6-(2-phenylethynyl) pyridine ([(11)C]MPEP), 2-(2-(3-[(11)C]methoxyphenyl)ethynyl)pyridine ([(11)C]M-MPEP), 2-(2-(5-[(11)C]methoxypyridin-3-yl)ethynyl)pyridine ([(11)C]M-PEPy), and 3-[(2-[(18)F]methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl]pyridine ([(18)F]M-TEP). A total of 45 positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies were conducted on nine male Sprague-Dawley rats within 4 to 6 weeks after unilateral 6-OHDA lesioning into the right medial forebrain bundle. The severity of the lesion was determined with [(11)C]CFT ([(11)C]2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane), a specific and sensitive ligand for imaging dopamine transporter function. The binding potential (BP) images were processed on pixel-by-pixel basis by using a method of the distribution volume ratio with cerebellum as a reference tissue. The values for BP were determined on striatum, hippocampus, and cortex. [(11)C]CFT binding was decreased on the lesioned (right) striatum by 35.4%+/-13.4% compared with the intact left striatum, indicating corresponding loss of presynaptic dopamine terminals. On the same areas of the lesioned striatum, three of the four tested mGluR5 ligands showed enhanced binding characteristics. The average differences between the right and left striatum were 4.4%+/-6.5% (P0.05) with [(11)C]M-MPEP, 3.9%+/-4.6% (P0.05) with [(18)F]M-TEP. The enhanced binding was also observed in the right hippocampus and cortex. These studies showed that glutamatergic neurotransmission might have a complementary role in dopaminergic degeneration, which can be evaluated by in vivo PET imaging.
Positron Emission Tomography of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Oncolysis Cancer Research. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17409438 Viral oncolysis, the destruction of cancer cells by replicating viruses, is under clinical investigation for cancer therapy. Lytic viral replication in cancer cells both destroys the cells and liberates progeny virion to infect adjacent cancer cells. The safety and efficacy of this approach are dependent on selective and robust viral replication in cancer cells rather than in normal cells. Methods to detect and quantify viral replication in tissues have relied on organ sampling for molecular analyses. Preclinical and clinical studies of viral oncolysis will benefit significantly from development of a noninvasive method to repetitively measure viral replication. We have shown that positron emission tomography (PET) allows for in vivo detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 replication in tumor cells using 9-(4-[(18)F]-fluoro-3-[hydroxymethyl]butyl)guanine ([(18)F]FHBG) as the substrate for HSV thymidine kinase (HSV-TK). As expected, phosphorylated [(18)F]FHBG is initially trapped within HSV-1-infected tumor cells and is detectable as early as 2 h following virus administration. MicroPET images reveal that [(18)F]FHBG accumulation in HSV-1-infected tumors peaks at 6 h. However, despite progressive accumulation of HSV-1 titers and HSV-TK protein in the tumor as viral oncolysis proceeds, tumor cell degradation resulting from viral oncolysis increases over time, which limits intracellular retention of [(18)F]FHBG. These observations have important consequences with regard to strategies to use [(18)F]FHBG PET for monitoring sites of HSV-TK expression during viral oncolysis.
Modulation of Dopaminergic and Glutamatergic Brain Function: PET Studies on Parkinsonian Rats Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine. Jul, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17574972 Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta is a cardinal feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although uncertain, the pathology has been suggested to derive from a malfunction of the complex interaction between dopaminergic and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). To further address this issue, we investigated the imaging profile and expression of dopamine D(2) receptors and mGluRs in a classic parkinsonian rodent model induced by the toxin 6-hydroxydopamine.
Dual-modality in Vivo Monitoring of Subventricular Zone Stem Cell Migration and Metabolism Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging. May-Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17583908 Rat subventricular zone (SVZ) stem cells were labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO) to follow their fate and migratory potential with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). Labeled cells were transplanted into either the right rostral migratory stream (RMS) or striatum of normal adult Sprague-Dawley rats and serially followed for 3 months. Minimal migration of the cells implanted into the striatum was observed after 3 weeks whereas SVZ cells implanted into the RMS migrated toward the olfactory bulb at 1 week post-transplantation. PET studies of glucose metabolism using (18)F-FDG demonstrated enhanced glucose utilization in the striatum of transplanted animals. PET studies conducted 3 months after transplantation showed elevated accumulation of (11)C-raclopride (dopamine receptor type 2) and (11)C-CFT (dopamine transporter) binding in the striatal grafts. Implanted SVZ cells did not induce significant inflammation as identified by PET using (11)C-PK11195, a ligand detecting activated microglia. Histological analysis identified viable SPIO-labeled cells (some of which were nestin-positive) 7 weeks post-transplantation, suggesting a prolonged presence of undifferentiated neural stem cells within transplants. In addition, double immunostaining for neuronal and astrocytic markers (NeuN and GFAP) indicated that differentiation into neuronal and astrocytic phenotypes also occurred. Thus, combining MRI and PET enables monitoring of cell migration and metabolism non-invasively in vivo for extended periods of time.
Stem Cell Biology and Its Therapeutic Applications in the Setting of Spinal Cord Injury Neurosurgical Focus. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18341397 The development of an acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) inevitably leads to a complex cascade of ischemia and inflammation that results in significant scar tissue formation. The development of such scar tissue provides a severe impediment to neural regeneration and healing with restoration of function. A multimodal approach to treatment is required because SCIs occur with differing levels of severity and over different lengths of time. To achieve significant breakthroughs in outcomes, such approaches must combine both neuroprotective and neuroregenerative treatments. Novel techniques modulating endogenous stem cells demonstrate great promise in promoting neuroregeneration and restoring function.
Endogenous Stem Cell Proliferation Induced by Intravenous Hedgehog Agonist Administration After Contusion in the Adult Rat Spinal Cord Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19278333 Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is a glycoprotein molecule that upregulates the transcription factor Gli1. The Shh protein plays a critical role in the proliferation of endogenous neural precursor cells when directly injected into the spinal cord after a spinal cord injury in adult rodents. Small-molecule agonists of the hedgehog (Hh) pathway were used in an attempt to reproduce these findings through intravenous administration.
Synthesis and Evaluation of a Near-infrared Fluorescent Non-peptidic Bivalent Integrin Alpha(v)beta(3) Antagonist for Cancer Imaging Bioconjugate Chemistry. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20102181 Computer modeling approaches to identify new inhibitors are essentially a very sophisticated and efficient way to design drugs. In this study, a bivalent nonpeptide intergrin alpha(v)beta(3) antagonist (bivalent IA) has been synthesized on the basis of an in silico rational design approach. A near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent imaging probe has been developed from this bivalent compound. In vitro binding assays have shown that the bivalent IA (IC(50) = 0.40 +/- 0.11 nM) exhibited improved integrin alpha(v)beta(3) affinity in comparison with the monovalent IA (IC(50) = 22.33 +/- 4.51 nM), resulting in an over 50-fold improvement in receptor affinity. NIR imaging probe, bivalent-IA-Cy5.5 conjugate, also demonstrated significantly increased binding affinity (IC(50) = 0.13 +/- 0.02 nM). Fluorescence microscopy studies showed integrin-mediated endocytosis of bivalent-IA-Cy5.5 in U87 cells which was effectively blocked by nonfluorescent bivalent IA. We also demonstrated tumor accumulation of this NIR imaging probe in U87 mouse xenografts.
Intravenous Hedgehog Agonist Induces Proliferation of Neural and Oligodendrocyte Precursors in Rodent Spinal Cord Injury Neurosurgery. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21107202 Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is a glycoprotein molecule that upregulates the transcription factor gli-1 and plays a critical role in the proliferation of endogenous neural precursor cells when directly injected into adult rodent spinal cords after injury.