Articles by Yasuyuki Horii in JoVE
Testing Animal Anxiety in Rats: Effects of Open Arm Ledges and Closed Arm Wall Transparency in Elevated Plus Maze Test Yasuyuki Horii1, Iain McTaggart2, Maiko Kawaguchi1 1Laboratory of Animal Behavior and Environmental Science, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, 2Laboratory of Agri-environmental Science, School of Agriculture, Meiji University Rats' anxiety-like behavior tested by the elevated plus maze varies highly depending on the testing environment. Here we show how apparatus settings, especially arm structure, affect behavior on the maze, and we explain a reliable protocol to detect effects of anxiolytic drugs. This report will contribute to anxiety research.
Other articles by Yasuyuki Horii on PubMed
Higher Detection Sensitivity of Anxiolytic Effects of Diazepam by Ledge-free Open Arm with Opaque Walled Closed Arm Elevated Plus Maze in Male Rats Behavioural Brain Research. | Pubmed ID: 26241172 The elevated plus maze (EPM) is an established method for testing animal anxiety. However, EPM apparatuses and their features can differ among laboratories, most notably in the presence/absence of ledges on the open arm and/or the transparency/opaqueness of walls on the closed arm. The combined effects of these variable arm features on EPM behavior are not yet fully understood. In the present study, we prepared four types of EPM apparatus - open arms with (0.5 cm) or without (0 cm) ledges×closed arms with transparent or opaque walls - and compared the maze-exploration behavior of male Sprague-Dawley rats. We found that the presence of open arm ledges significantly increased the incidence of open arm exploration. Furthermore, time spent in the distal segment of the open arm was shortest in the apparatus that had open arms with no ledges and opaque closed arms (No-Ledges/Opaque), and was longest in the apparatus that had open arms with ledges and transparent closed arms (Ledges/Transparent). Additionally, the No-Ledges/Opaque apparatus could detect the effect of 0.5mg/kg diazepam, an anxiolytic drug, whereas the Ledges/Transparent apparatus could not. These results indicate that arm structure (features of both open and closed arms) significantly influences maze-exploratory behavior in rats, and that No-Ledges/Opaque apparatuses have higher detection sensitivity for anxiolytic effects of diazepam than that of Ledges/Transparent apparatuses.
Effects of Neonatal 17α-ethinyloestradiol Exposure on Female-paced Mating Behaviour in the Rat Journal of Applied Toxicology : JAT. | Pubmed ID: 28176338 Correct perinatal oestrogen levels are critical for sexual differentiation. For example, perinatal exposure to oestrogen causes masculinization and defeminization of the brain in female rats and also induces delayed effects after maturation characterized by early onset of abnormal oestrus cycling. However, the mechanisms underlying the above effects of oestrogen remain to be fully determined. 17α-ethinyloestradiol (EE), a common synthetic oestrogen widely used in oral contraceptives, binds specifically to oestrogen receptors. In this study, we demonstrated the effects of a single neonatal injection of high- or low-dose EE on reproductive behaviours. Female rats within 24 h after birth were subcutaneously injected with sesame oil, EE (0.02, 2 mg kg ) and 17β-oestradiol (E ) (20 mg kg ). Between 11 and 15 weeks of age, sexual behaviour was tested twice in a paced mating situation. Latency to enter, lordosis and soliciting behaviour were recorded. Both high-dose EE- and E -treated females showed a significantly lower lordosis quotient, decreased soliciting behaviours, increased rejection and fighting numbers. Accessibility to males was also delayed by neonatal E exposure, although it was shortened by high-dose EE exposure. In contrast, low-dose EE-treated females did not exhibit impaired sexual behaviour. These results suggest that single neonatal exposure to a high dose of EE or E disturbs the normal development of the female brain, resulting in impaired sexual behaviours in a female-paced mating situation. Besides, the differences noted between high-dose EE- and E -treated females might be caused by different affinities of the oestrogen receptors, metabolic rates or mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Early-life Exposure to Tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) Phosphate Induces Dose-dependent Suppression of Sexual Behavior in Male Rats Journal of Applied Toxicology : JAT. | Pubmed ID: 29271492 Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals may adversely affect animals, particularly during development. Tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) is an organophosphate with anti-androgen function in vitro that is present in indoor dust at relatively high concentrations. In male rats, androgens are necessary for the development of reproductive organs, as well as the endocrine and central nervous systems. However, we currently do not know the exact effects of TDCIPP exposure through suckling on subsequent reproductive behavior in males. Here, we show that TDCIPP exposure (25-250 mg kg via oral administration over 28 consecutive days post-birth) suppressed male sexual behavior and reduced testes size. These changes were dose-dependent and appeared first in adults rather than in juveniles. These results demonstrate that TDCIPP exposure led to normal body growth and appearance in juveniles, but disrupted the endocrine system and physiology in adults. Therefore, assays should be performed using adult animals to ensure accuracy, and to confirm the influence of chemical substances given during early mammalian life.