In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (7)

Articles by Yunxiang Gao in JoVE

Other articles by Yunxiang Gao on PubMed

Versatile Control of Multiphase Laminar Flow for In-channel Microfabrication

Lab on a Chip. Oct, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18813393

We have improved the multiphase laminar flow based in-channel fabrication method to overcome diffusion-induced broadening. A sheathing phase with protecting molecules confines metal wire deposition and allows for flexible control of the location, width, and uniformity of deposited metal wires. Two-layered T-junctions are introduced to form vertically stacked multiphase laminar flow. Combining these techniques, we fabricate quadrupole silver electrodes on the four sidewalls of rectangular polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannels that are 3 cm in length.

Hole and Electron Extraction Layers Based on Graphene Oxide Derivatives for High-performance Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

Advanced Materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.). May, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22488820

By charge neutralization of carboxylic acid groups in graphene oxide (GO) with Cs(2)CO(3) to afford Cesium-neutralized GO (GO-Cs), GO derivatives with appropriate modification are used as both hole- and electron-extraction layers for bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. The normal and inverted devices based on GO hole- and GO-Cs electron-extraction layers both outperform the corresponding standard BHJ solar cells.

Sensor Arrays from Multicomponent Micropatterned Nanoparticles and Graphene

Nanotechnology. Nov, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 24113252

A novel approach for multicomponent patterning metal/metal oxide nanoparticles on graphene was developed, which involves region-specific plasma treatment, followed by region-selective substrate-enhanced electroless deposition of Au nanoparticles and solution alkalization of ferrous chloride tetrahydrate in the presence of ammonia into Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The resultant Fe3O4/Au multicomponent micropatterned-graphene films were found to be highly selective sensor arrays for detecting low levels of chemical vapor molecules at ppm levels. This novel concept could be applied to the development of various multicomponent patterned nanomaterials for many potential applications, ranging from nanoscale region-specific chemical-/bio-sensor arrays to multifunctional optoelectronic devices.

Biocompatible, Biodegradable and Porous Liquid Crystal Elastomer Scaffolds for Spatial Cell Cultures

Macromolecular Bioscience. Feb, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25303674

Here we report on the modular synthesis and characterization of biodegradable, controlled porous, liquid crystal elastomers (LCE) and their use as three-dimensional cell culture scaffolds. The elastomers were prepared by cross-linking of star block-co-polymers with pendant cholesterol units resulting in the formation of smectic-A LCEs as determined by polarized optical microscopy, DSC, and X-ray diffraction. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the porosity of the as-prepared biocompatible LCEs, making them suitable as 3D cell culture scaffolds. Biodegradability studies in physiological buffers at varying pH show that these scaffolds are intact for about 11 weeks after which degradation sets in at an exponential rate. Initial results from cell culture studies indicate that these smectic LCEs are compatible with growth, survival, and expansion of cultured neuroblastomas and myoblasts when grown on the LCEs for extended time periods (about a month). These preliminary cell studies focused on characterizing the elastomer-based scaffolds' biocompatibility and the successful 3D incorporation as well as growth of cells in 60 to 150-μm thick elastomer sheets.

Non-viral Nanoparticle Delivers Small Interfering RNA to Macrophages in Vitro and in Vivo

PloS One. 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25799489

Macrophages are increasingly being viewed as therapeutic target for various cancers and many inflammatory diseases. Sequence specific gene reduction by siRNA represents an attractive approach to modulate macrophage function. However, delivery of the therapeutic siRNA into macrophages by non-viral nanoparticles has been a major technical challenge. In this study, we developed a glucan-based siRNA carrier system (BG34-10-Re-I) and demonstrated that the BG34-10-Re-I can effectively assemble siRNA into uniformly distributed nanoparticles of the novel core-shell structure. The BG34-10-Re-I/siRNA nanoparticles effectively reduced gene expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in primary macrophages at both protein and mRNA level. The nanoparticles also mediated a sustained reduction of MIF within primary macrophages. Moreover, systemic injection of the nanoparticles into the Balb/c mice bearing 4T1 mammary tumors resulted in the MIF reduction in tumor-associated macrophages. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that the glucan-shell and the siRNA-core structure contribute to the effective delivery of MIF siRNA to macrophages both in vitro and in vivo. This study represents the first development of the primary macrophage MIF gene targeted non-viral nanoparticle system for both in vitro and in vivo applications.

Development of a Tri-Axial Cutting Force Sensor for the Milling Process

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland). Mar, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27007374

This paper presents a three-component fixed dynamometer based on a strain gauge, which reduces output errors produced by the cutting force imposed on different milling positions of the workpiece. A reformative structure of tri-layer cross beams is proposed, sensitive areas were selected, and corresponding measuring circuits were arranged to decrease the inaccuracy brought about by positional variation. To simulate the situation with a milling cutter moving on the workpiece and validate the function of reducing the output errors when the milling position changes, both static calibration and dynamic milling tests were implemented on different parts of the workpiece. Static experiment results indicate that with standard loads imposed, the maximal deviation between the measured forces and the standard inputs is 4.87%. The results of the dynamic milling test illustrate that with identical machining parameters, the differences in output variation between the developed sensor and standard dynamometer are no larger than 6.61%. Both static and dynamic experimental results demonstrate that the developed dynamometer is suitable for measuring milling force imposed on different positions of the workpiece, which shows potential applicability in machining a monitoring system.

Direct Intertube Cross-Linking of Carbon Nanotubes at Room Temperature

Nano Letters. Oct, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27658002

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have long been regarded as an efficient free radical scavenger because of the large-conjugation system in their electronic structures. Hence, despite abundant reports on CNT reacting with incoming free radical species, current research has not seen CNT itself displaying the chemical reactivity of free radicals. Here we show that reactive free radicals can in fact be generated on carbon nanotubes via reductive defluorination of highly fluorinated single-walled carbon nanotubes (FSWNTs). This finding not only enriches the current understanding of carbon nanotube chemical reactivity but also opens up new opportunities in CNT-based material design. For example, spacer-free direct intertube cross-linking of carbon nanotubes was previously achieved only under extremely high temperature and pressure or electron/ion beam irradiation. With the free radicals on defluorinated FSWNTs, the nanotubes containing multiple radicals on the sidewall can directly cross-link with each other under ambient temperature through intertube radical recombination. It is demonstrated that carbon nanotube fibers reinforced via direct cross-linking displays much improved mechanical properties.

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