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Chapter 5
Gases

Definition and Measurement of Pressure: Atmospheric Pressure, Barometer, and Manometer
Gas pressure is caused by force exerted by gas molecules colliding with the surfaces of objects. Although the force of each collision is very small,…
Gas Laws: Boyle's, Gay-Lussac, Charles', Avogadro's, and Ideal Gas Law
Through experiments, scientists established the mathematical relationships between pairs of variables, such as pressure and temperature, pressure and…
Applications of the Ideal Gas Law: Molar Mass, Density, and Volume
The volume occupied by one mole of a substance is its molar volume. The ideal gas law, PV = nRT,  suggests that the volume of a given quantity…
Mixtures of Gases: Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures and Mole Fractions
Unless individual gases chemically react with each other, the individual gases in a mixture of gases do not affect each other’s pressure. Each…
Chemical Stoichiometry and Gases: Using Ideal Gas Law to Determine Moles
Chemical stoichiometry describes the quantitative relationships between reactants and products in chemical reactions. In addition to measuring…
Basic Postulates of Kinetic Molecular Theory: Particle Size, Energy, and Collision
The ideal-gas equation, which is empirical, describes the behavior of gases by establishing relationships between their macroscopic properties. For…
Kinetic Molecular Theory and Gas Laws Explain Properties of Gas Molecules
The test of the kinetic molecular theory (KMT) and its postulates is its ability to explain and describe the behavior of a gas. The various gas laws…
Kinetic Molecular Theory: Molecular Velocities, Temperature, and Kinetic Energy
The kinetic molecular theory qualitatively explains the behaviors described by the various gas laws. The postulates of this theory may be applied in…
Behavior of Gas Molecules: Molecular Diffusion, Mean Free Path, and Effusion
Although gaseous molecules travel at tremendous speeds (hundreds of meters per second), they collide with other gaseous molecules and travel in many…
Real Gases: Effects of Intermolecular Forces and Molecular Volume Deriving Van der Waals Equation
Thus far, the ideal gas law, PV = nRT, has been applied to a variety of different types of problems, ranging from reaction stoichiometry and…
Combining Volumetric Capnography And Barometric Plethysmography To Measure The Lung Structure-function Relationship
Tools to measure lung and airways volume are critical for pulmonary researchers interested in evaluating the impact of disease or novel therapies on…
An Analog Macroscopic Technique for Studying Molecular Hydrodynamic Processes in Dense Gases and Liquids
An analog, macroscopic method for studying molecular-scale hydrodynamic processes in dense gases and liquids is described. The technique applies a…
Ethylene Polymerizations Using Parallel Pressure Reactors and a Kinetic Analysis of Chain Transfer Polymerization
We demonstrate a method for high-throughput catalyst screening using a parallel pressure reactor starting from the initial synthesis of a nickel…

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