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Chapter 2
Thermodynamics and Chemical Kinetics

Chemical Reactions
A balanced chemical equation provides the information of chemical formulas of the reactants and products involved in the chemical change. A…
Enthalpy and Heat of Reaction
Combustion, commonly known as burning, is a reaction in which a substance reacts with an oxidizing agent, which in most cases is molecular oxygen, to…
Energetics of Solution Formation
The formation of a solution is an example of a spontaneous process, which is a process that occurs under specified conditions without energy from…
Entropy and Solvation
The process of surrounding a solute with solvent is called solvation. It involves evenly distributing the solute within the solvent. The rule of…
Gibbs Free Energy and Thermodynamic Favorability
The spontaneity of a process depends upon the temperature of the system. Phase transitions, for example, will proceed spontaneously in one direction…
Chemical and Solubility Equilibria
The free energy change associated with dissolving a solute in a liter of solvent is called the free energy of a solution, ΔGsolution. The…
Rate Law and Reaction Order
The rate of a reaction is affected by the concentrations of reactants. Rate laws (differential rate laws) or rate equations are mathematical…
Effect of Temperature Change on Reaction Rate
The Arrhenius equation, relates the activation energy and the rate constant, k, for many chemical reactions. In this equation, R is the ideal gas…
Multi-Step Reactions
Chemical reactions often occur in a stepwise fashion involving two or more distinct reactions taking place in a sequence. A balanced equation…
Bond Dissociation Energy and Activation Energy
Bond energy is the energy required to break a bond homolytically. These values are usually expressed in units of kcal/mol or kJ/mol and are referred…
Energy Diagrams, Transition States, and Intermediates
Free-energy diagrams, or reaction coordinate diagrams, are graphs showing the energy changes that occur during a chemical reaction. The reaction…
Predicting Reaction Outcomes
Kinetics describes the rate and path by which a reaction occurs. In contrast, thermodynamics deals with state functions and describes the properties,…
Hot Biological Catalysis: Isothermal Titration Calorimetry to Characterize Enzymatic Reactions
Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a well-described technique that measures the heat released or absorbed during a chemical reaction, using it…
Determination of Thermodynamic Properties of Alkaline Earth-liquid Metal Alloys Using the Electromotive Force Technique
A novel electrochemical cell based on a CaF2 solid-state electrolyte has been developed to measure the electromotive force (emf) of binary alkaline…
Temperature-programmed Deoxygenation of Acetic Acid on Molybdenum Carbide Catalysts
Temperature programmed reaction (TPRxn) is a simple yet powerful tool for screening solid catalyst performance at a variety of conditions. A TPRxn…

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