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Chapter 1
Understanding Statistics

Introduction to Statistics
The science of statistics involves collecting, analyzing, interpreting, and presenting data. The method of collecting, organizing, and summarizing…
How Data are Classified: Categorical Data
A variable, usually notated by capital letters such as X and Y, is a characteristic or measurement that can be determined for each member of a…
How Data are Classified: Numerical Data
Data that are countable or measurable in specific units are called numerical or quantitative data. Quantitative data are always numbers. Quantitative…
Nominal Level of Measurement
The way a set of data is measured is called its level of measurement. Correct statistical procedures depend on a researcher being familiar with…
Ordinal Level of Measurement
The way a set of data is measured is called its level of measurement. Correct statistical procedures depend on a researcher being familiar with…
Interval Level of Measurement
For effective statistical analysis, data are classified into four levels of measurement—nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. Data measured…
Ratio Level of Measurement
The way a set of data is measured is called its level of measurement. Correct statistical procedures depend on a researcher being familiar with…
Data Collection by Observations
Data collection refers to a systematic way of obtaining, observing, measuring, and analyzing accurate information. Observational studies are one of…
Data Collection by Experiments
Data collection is a systematic method of obtaining, observing, measuring, and analyzing accurate information. An experimental study is a standard…
Data Collection by Survey
The systematic method of obtaining and analyzing accurate information of a population is called data collection. A survey is a standard method of…
Random Sampling Method
Sampling is a technique to select a portion (or subset) of the larger population and study that portion (the sample) to gain information about the…
Systematic Sampling Method
Sampling is a technique to select a portion (or subset) of the larger population and study that portion (the sample) to gain information about the…
Convenience Sampling Method
Sampling is a technique to select a portion (or subset) of the larger population and study that portion (the sample) to gain information about the…
Stratified Sampling Method
Sampling is a technique to select a portion (or subset) of the larger population and study that portion (the sample) to gain information about the…
Cluster Sampling Method
Appropriate sampling methods ensure that samples are drawn without bias and accurately represent the population. Because measuring the entire…
Sampling Soils in a Heterogeneous Research Plot

Sampling Soils in a Heterogeneous Research Plot

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Soils are highly heterogeneous. In general, the number of soil samples required for soil research has always been determined arbitrarily and the…
Using a Virtual Store As a Research Tool to Investigate Consumer In-store Behavior
People's responses to products and/or choice environments are crucial to understanding in-store consumer behaviors. Currently, there are various…
A Laboratory Method to Measure Contagious Yawning in Rats
Communication is an essential aspect of animal social life. Animals may influence one another and come together in schools, flocks, and herds.…

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