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# Chapter 1 Understanding Statistics

## Introduction to Statistics

The science of statistics involves collecting, analyzing, interpreting, and presenting data. The method of collecting, organizing, and summarizing…

## How Data are Classified: Categorical Data

A variable, usually notated by capital letters such as X and Y, is a characteristic or measurement that can be determined for each member of a…

## How Data are Classified: Numerical Data

Data that are countable or measurable in specific units are called numerical or quantitative data. Quantitative data are always numbers. Quantitative…

## Nominal Level of Measurement

The way a set of data is measured is called its level of measurement. Correct statistical procedures depend on a researcher being familiar with…

## Ordinal Level of Measurement

The way a set of data is measured is called its level of measurement. Correct statistical procedures depend on a researcher being familiar with…

## Interval Level of Measurement

For effective statistical analysis, data are classified into four levels of measurement—nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. Data measured…

## Ratio Level of Measurement

The way a set of data is measured is called its level of measurement. Correct statistical procedures depend on a researcher being familiar with…

## Data Collection by Observations

Data collection refers to a systematic way of obtaining, observing, measuring, and analyzing accurate information. Observational studies are one of…

## Data Collection by Experiments

Data collection is a systematic method of obtaining, observing, measuring, and analyzing accurate information. An experimental study is a standard…

## Data Collection by Survey

The systematic method of obtaining and analyzing accurate information of a population is called data collection. A survey is a standard method of…

## Random Sampling Method

Sampling is a technique to select a portion (or subset) of the larger population and study that portion (the sample) to gain information about the…

## Systematic Sampling Method

Sampling is a technique to select a portion (or subset) of the larger population and study that portion (the sample) to gain information about the…

## Convenience Sampling Method

Sampling is a technique to select a portion (or subset) of the larger population and study that portion (the sample) to gain information about the…

## Stratified Sampling Method

Sampling is a technique to select a portion (or subset) of the larger population and study that portion (the sample) to gain information about the…

## Cluster Sampling Method

Appropriate sampling methods ensure that samples are drawn without bias and accurately represent the population. Because measuring the entire…

## Sampling Soils in a Heterogeneous Research Plot

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Soils are highly heterogeneous. In general, the number of soil samples required for soil research has always been determined arbitrarily and the…

## Using a Virtual Store As a Research Tool to Investigate Consumer In-store Behavior

People's responses to products and/or choice environments are crucial to understanding in-store consumer behaviors. Currently, there are various…

## A Laboratory Method to Measure Contagious Yawning in Rats

Communication is an essential aspect of animal social life. Animals may influence one another and come together in schools, flocks, and herds.…

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