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# Chapter 1 Units, Dimensions, and Measurements

## The Scope of Physics

Physics is concerned with the interactions of energy, matter, space, and time, in order to discover the underlying mechanisms that underpin all…

## Orders of Magnitude

The order of magnitude of a number is the power of 10 that most closely approximates it. Thus, the order of magnitude estimates the scale (or size)…

## Models, Theories, and Laws

Scientists frequently use models to help them comprehend a specific collection of phenomena. In physics, a model is a condensed version of a physical…

## Units and Standards of Measurement

A physical quantity is defined either by specifying its measurement method or by stating how it is calculated from other measurements. For example,…

## Estimation of the Physical Quantities

On many occasions, physicists, other scientists, and engineers need to make estimates of a particular quantity. These are sometimes referred to as…

## Base Quantities and Derived Quantities

In any system of units, the units for some physical quantities must be specified through a measurement process. These measurements are the base…

## Conversion of Units

Sometimes, there is a need to convert from one unit to another one. For instance, reading a cookbook in which quantities are expressed in units of…

## Accuracy and Precision

Scientists typically make repeated measurements of a quantity to ensure the quality of their findings and to evaluate both the precision and the…

## Random and Systematic Errors

Scientists always try their best to record measurements with the utmost accuracy and precision. However, sometimes errors do occur. These errors can…

## Rules for Significant Figures

In any measurement, the precision of the measuring tool is an essential factor. An ordinary ruler, for example, can measure length to the closest…

## Significant Figures in Calculations

Uncertainty in measurements can be avoided by reporting the results of a calculation with the correct number of significant figures. This can be…

## Dimensional Analysis

The concept of dimension is important because every mathematical equation linking physical quantities must be dimensionally consistent, implying that…

## Problem Solving: Dimensional Analysis

Every mathematical equation that connects separate distinct physical quantities must be dimensionally consistent, which implies it must abide by two…

## Solving Problems in Physics

Problem-solving is the ability to apply general physical principles to specific situations, usually expressed by equations. It is an essential skill…

## Measuring Spatially- and Directionally-varying Light Scattering from Biological Material

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Light interacts with an organism's integument on a variety of spatial scales. For example in an iridescent bird: nano-scale structures produce color;…

## Measurement of Outgassing Rates of Steels

Steels are commonly used materials in the fabrication of vacuum systems because of their good mechanical, corrosion, and vacuum properties. A variety…

## Near-Infrared Temperature Measurement Technique for Water Surrounding an Induction-heated Small Magnetic Sphere

A technique to measure the temperature of water and non-turbid aqueous media surrounding an induction-heated small magnetic sphere is presented. This…

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