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Chapter 5
Newton's Laws of Motion

Force

Force

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Forces affect every moment of our life. Our bodies are held to the Earth by force, and they are held together by the forces of charged particles.…
Types of Forces

Types of Forces

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In most situations, forces can be grouped into two categories: contact forces and field forces.  Contact forces occur as a result of direct…
Newton's First Law: Introduction

Newton's First Law: Introduction

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Motion draws our attention. Motion itself can be beautiful, causing us to marvel at the forces needed to create spectacular sights, such as that of a…
Newton's First Law: Application

Newton's First Law: Application

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Experience suggests that an object at rest remains at rest if left alone, and that an object in motion tends to slow down and stop unless some effort…
Internal and External Forces

Internal and External Forces

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Newton's first law states that a net external force causes a change in motion. External forces act on an object or system, originating outside of…
Newton's Second Law

Newton's Second Law

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Newton's second law is closely related to his first law of motion. It mathematically gives the cause-and-effect relationship between force and…
Mass and Weight

Mass and Weight

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Mass and weight are often used interchangeably in everyday conversation. For example,  medical records often show our weight in kilograms, but…
Weightlessness

Weightlessness

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When an object is dropped, it accelerates toward the center of the Earth. If the net external force on the object is its weight, it is said to be in…
Apparent Weight

Apparent Weight

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True weight is the measure of the gravitational force acting on an object. However, if the object accelerates, its measured weight is different from…
Newton's Third Law: Introduction

Newton's Third Law: Introduction

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Whenever one body exerts a force on a second body, the first body experiences a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction, to the force that…
Newton's Third Law: Examples

Newton's Third Law: Examples

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Newton's third law states that every action has an equal and opposite reaction. Consider a swimmer pushing off the side of a pool. They push…
Drawing Free-body Diagrams: Rules

Drawing Free-body Diagrams: Rules

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The first step in describing and analyzing most phenomena in physics involves the careful drawing of a free-body diagram. Free-body diagrams are…
Free Body Diagrams: Examples

Free Body Diagrams: Examples

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Solving problems that involve forces is easy using free-body diagrams. A free-body diagram is a sketch showing all the external forces that are…
Inertial Frames of Reference

Inertial Frames of Reference

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Newton’s first law is usually considered to be a statement about reference frames. It provides a method for identifying a special type of…
Non-inertial Frames of Reference

Non-inertial Frames of Reference

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A reference frame accelerating or decelerating relative to an inertial frame is a non-inertial frame. To help understand this, consider what taking…
Centrifugal Force

Centrifugal Force

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Pseudo forces, or fictitious forces, appear to act on an object in motion in a rotating frame of reference with respect to an inertial reference…
Magnetic Tweezers for the Measurement of Twist and Torque
Single-molecule techniques make it possible to investigate the behavior of individual biological molecules in solution in real time. These techniques…
Simultaneous Measurement of Turbulence and Particle Kinematics Using Flow Imaging Techniques
Numerous problems in scientific and engineering fields involve understanding the kinematics of particles in turbulent flows, such as contaminants,…
Single Wavelength Shadow Imaging of <em>Caenorhabditis elegans</em> Locomotion Including Force Estimates
This study demonstrates an inexpensive and straightforward technique that allows the measurement of physical properties such as position, velocity,…

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