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Chapter 9
Linear Momentum, Impulse and Collisions

Linear Momentum
The term momentum is used in various ways in everyday language, most of which are consistent with the precise scientific definition. Generally,…
Force and Momentum
Force and momentum are intimately related. Force acting over time can change momentum, and Newton's second law of motion can be stated in its…
Impulse
According to Newton’s second law of motion, the rate of change of the momentum of an object is the net external force acting on it. The total…
Impulse-Momentum Theorem
The total change in the motion of an object is proportional to the total force vector acting on it and the time over which it acts. This product is…
Conservation of Momentum: Introduction
The total momentum of a system consisting of N interacting objects is constant in time or is conserved. A system must meet two requirements for its…
Conservation of Momentum: Problem Solving
Solving problems using the conservation of momentum requires four basic steps: Identify a closed system, where the total mass is constant, and no…
Types Of Collisions - I
When two objects come in direct contact with each other, it is called a collision. During a collision, two or more objects exert forces on each other…
Types of Collisions - II
When two or more objects collide with each other, they can stick together to form one single composite object (after collision). The total mass of…
Elastic Collisions: Introduction
An elastic collision is one that conserves both internal kinetic energy and momentum. Internal kinetic energy is the sum of the kinetic energies of…
Elastic Collisions: Case Study
Elastic collision of a system demands conservation of both momentum and kinetic energy. To solve problems involving one-dimensional elastic…
Collisions in Multiple Dimensions: Introduction
It is far more common for collisions to occur in two dimensions; that is, the initial velocity vectors are neither parallel nor antiparallel to each…
Collisions in Multiple Dimensions: Problem Solving
In multiple dimensions, the conservation of momentum applies in each direction independently. Hence, to solve collisions in multiple dimensions, we…
Center of Mass: Introduction
Any object that obeys Newton's second law of motion is made up of a large number of infinitesimally small particles. Objects in motion can be as…
Significance of Center of Mass
The center of mass of an object is defined as the mass-weighted average position of all the particles that comprise the object. The significance of…
Gravitational Potential Energy for Extended Objects
Consider a system comprising several point masses. The coordinates of the center of mass for this system can be expressed as the summation of the…
Rocket Propulsion in Empty Space - I
The driving force for the motion of any vehicle is friction, but in the case of rocket propulsion in space, the friction force is not present. The…
Rocket Propulsion In Empty Space - II
The motion of a rocket is governed by the conservation of momentum principle. A rocket's momentum changes by the same amount (with the opposite…
Rocket Propulsion in Gravitational Field - I
Rockets range in size from small fireworks that ordinary people use to the enormous Saturn V that once propelled massive payloads toward the Moon.…
Rocket Propulsion in Gravitational Field - II
A rocket's velocity in the presence of a gravitational field is decreased by the amount of force exerted by Earth's gravitational field,…
Optimization, Test and Diagnostics of Miniaturized Hall Thrusters
Miniaturized spacecraft and satellites require smart, highly efficient and durable low-thrust thrusters, capable of extended, reliable operation…
A 100 KW Class Applied-field Magnetoplasmadynamic Thruster
Applied-field magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters (AF-MPD thrusters) are hybrid accelerators in which electromagnetic and gas dynamic processes accelerate…
Development of an Experimental Setup for the Measurement of the Coefficient of Restitution under Vacuum Conditions
The Discrete Element Method is used for the simulation of particulate systems to describe and analyze them, to predict and afterwards optimize their…

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