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Chapter 16
Waves

Travelling Waves
A wave is a disturbance that propagates from its source, repeating itself periodically, and is typically associated with simple harmonic motion.…
Wave Parameters
The simplest mechanical waves are associated with simple harmonic motion and repeat themselves for several cycles. These simple harmonic waves can be…
Equations of Wave Motion
Mathematically, the motion of a wave can be studied using a wavefunction. Consider a string oscillating up and down in simple harmonic motion, having…
Graphing the Wave Function
Consider the wave equation for a sinusoidal wave moving in the positive x-direction. The wave equation is a function of both position and time. From…
Velocity and Acceleration of a Wave
A wave propagates through a medium with a constant speed, known as a wave velocity. It is different from the speed of the particles of the medium,…
Speed of a Transverse Wave
The speed of a wave depends on the characteristics of the medium. For example, in the case of a guitar, the strings vibrate to produce the sound. The…
Problem-Solving: Tuning of a Guitar String
In the case of stringed instruments like the guitar, the elastic property that determines the speed of the sound produced is its linear mass density…
Kinetic and Potential Energy of a Wave
All forms of waves carry energy; this is directly visualized in nature. For instance, the waves of earthquakes are so intense that they can shake…
Energy and Power of a Wave
The total energy associated with a wavelength is the sum of the potential energy and the kinetic energy. The average rate of energy transfer…
Interference and Superposition of Waves
When two waves of the same nature occur in the same region simultaneously, they result in interference. Interference of waves implies that the net…
Reflection of Waves
When a wave travels from one medium to another, it gets reflected at the boundary of the second medium. A common example of this is when a person…
Propagation of Waves
When a wave propagates from one medium to another, part of it may get reflected in the first medium, and part of it may get transmitted to the second…
Standing Waves
Sometimes waves do not seem to move; rather, they just vibrate in place. Unmoving waves can be seen on the surface of a glass of milk kept in a…
Modes of Standing Waves - I
A close look at earthquakes provides evidence for the conditions appropriate for resonance, standing waves, and constructive and destructive…
Modes of Standing Waves: II
The starting point for expressing the modes of standing waves is understanding the boundary conditions that the waves must follow. The boundary…
Shock Wave Application to Cell Cultures
Shock waves nowadays are well known for their regenerative effects. Basic research findings showed that shock waves do cause a biological stimulus to…
Measurements of Waves in a Wind-wave Tank Under Steady and Time-varying Wind Forcing
This manuscript describes an experimental procedure that allows obtaining diverse quantitative information on temporal and spatial evolution of water…
Fabrication of Surface Acoustic Wave Devices on Lithium Niobate
Manipulation of fluids and particles by acoustic actuation at small scale is aiding the rapid growth of lab-on-a-chip applications. Megahertz-order…

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