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Chapter 10
Translation: RNA to Protein

Translation
Translation is the process of synthesizing proteins from the genetic information carried by messenger RNA (mRNA). Following transcription, it…
Ribosomes
Ribosomes translate genetic information encoded by messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have ribosomes. Cells…
tRNA Activation
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are present in both eukaryotes and bacteria. Though eukaryotes have 20 different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases to couple to…
Initiation of Translation
Initiating translation is complex because it involves multiple molecules. Initiator tRNA, ribosomal subunits, and eukaryotic initiation factors…
Termination of Translation
The large ribosomal subunit has several important structures essential to translation. These include the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) - which is…
Improving Translational Accuracy
Base complementarity between the three base pairs of mRNA codon and the tRNA anticodon is not a failsafe mechanism. Inaccuracies can range from a…
Nonsense-mediated mRNA Decay
The Upf proteins that carry out nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) are found in all eukaryotic organisms, including humans. Each protein has an individual…
Molecular Chaperones and Protein Folding
The native conformation of a protein is formed by interactions between the side chains of its constituent amino acids. When the amino acids cannot…
The Proteasome
Eukaryotic cells can degrade proteins through several pathways. One of the most important amongst these is the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. It helps…
Regulated Protein Degradation
It is vital to regulate the activity of enzymatic as well as non-enzymatic proteins inside the cell. This can be achieved either through creating a…
Proteins: From Genes to Degradation
Within a biological system, the DNA encodes the RNA, and the nucleotide sequence in the RNA further defines the amino acid sequence in the protein.…
Rapid <em>In Vivo</em> Fixation and Isolation of Translational Complexes from Eukaryotic Cells
Rapid responses involving fast redistribution of messenger(m)RNA and alterations of mRNA translation are pertinent to ongoing homeostatic adjustments…
In Vitro Transcribed RNA-based Luciferase Reporter Assay to Study Translation Regulation in Poxvirus-infected Cells
Every poxvirus mRNA transcribed after viral DNA replication has an evolutionarily conserved, non-templated 5'-poly(A) leader in the 5'-UTR.…
Quantifying Subcellular Ubiquitin-proteasome Activity in the Rodent Brain
The ubiquitin-proteasome system is a key regulator of protein degradation and a variety of other cellular processes in eukaryotes. In the brain,…

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