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Chapter 27
Extracellular Matrix in Animals

The Extracellular Matrix
In order to maintain tissue organization, many animal cells are surrounded by structural molecules that make up the extracellular matrix (ECM).…
Glycosaminoglycans
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), also known as mucopolysaccharides, are long and linear polymers comprising of specific repeating disaccharides - the amino…
Collagens are the Major Structural Proteins of ECM
Three main types of fibers are secreted by fibroblasts: collagen fibers, elastic fibers, and reticular fibers. Collagen fiber is made from fibrous…
Fibril-associated Collagen
Fibril-associated collagens are a type of collagens present in the extracellular matrix with interrupted triple helices or FACIT (Fibril-associated…
Elastin is Responsible for Tissue Elasticity
Elastic fiber contains the protein elastin along with lesser amounts of other proteins and glycoproteins. The main property of elastin is that it…
Fibronectins Connect Cells with ECM
Fibronectin is an adhesive glycoprotein present in the extracellular matrix of embryogenic and adult tissue. These molecules primarily aid in…
Matrix Proteoglycans and Glycoproteins
Proteoglycans are extensively glycosylated proteins, commonly found in the extracellular matrix, interwoven with collagen fibers. Hyaline cartilage,…
Role of Matrix Metalloproteases in Degradation of ECM
Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of proteins and glycoproteins of the extracellular matrix. MMPs are essential…
Basal Lamina are the Specialized Form of ECM
The basal lamina is a thin extracellular layer that lies underneath the cells and separates them from other tissues. The three layers of the basal…
Laminins are the Adhesive Proteins of Basal Lamina
Laminins are heterotrimeric proteins with high molecular mass found in the extracellular matrix. Each laminin molecule is composed of three chains,…
Type IV Collagen of Basal Lamina
Type IV collagen is a 400 nm long, network-forming collagen that acts as a barrier between the epithelial and endothelial cells. Type IV…
Glycoproteomics of the Extracellular Matrix: A Method for Intact Glycopeptide Analysis Using Mass Spectrometry
Fibrosis is a hallmark of many cardiovascular diseases and is associated with the exacerbated secretion and deposition of the extracellular matrix…
Assessing Collagen and Elastin Pressure-dependent Microarchitectures in Live, Human Resistance Arteries by Label-free Fluorescence Microscopy
The pathogenic contribution of resistance artery remodeling is documented in essential hypertension, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome.…
Identification of Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells by Immunofluorescence with Pax7 and Laminin Antibodies
Immunofluorescence is an effective method that helps to identify different cell types on tissue sections. In order to study the desired cell…

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