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Chapter 37
Cell Death

Overview of Cell Death
Cell death is an essential process where the body gets rid of old or damaged cells. Cell proliferation and death need to be balanced, as an imbalance…
Apoptosis
Apoptosis is a combination of two Greek words, 'apo' and 'ptosis,' meaning separation and falling off, respectively.…
Caspases
Caspase, a family of cysteine proteases, serve as effectors in apoptosis. The ced3 gene in C.elegans was first identified to be involved in…
The Extrinsic Apoptotic Pathway
The extrinsic apoptotic pathway is initiated when extracellular death-inducing signals, such as specific cytokines, activate the death receptors…
The Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway
Internal cellular stress, such as cellular injury or hypoxia, triggers intrinsic apoptosis. The B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family of proteins are the…
Phagocytosis of Apoptotic Cells
Cells undergoing apoptosis form apoptotic bodies that must be removed immediately to prevent inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and necrosis.…
Autophagic Cell Death
Christian de Duve discovered “autophagy,” a process in which cellular components are engulfed by membrane-bound organelles called…
Necrosis
Necrosis is considered as an “accidental” or unexpected form of cell death that ends in cell lysis. The first noticeable mention of…
Use of LysoTracker to Detect Programmed Cell Death in Embryos and Differentiating Embryonic Stem Cells
Programmed cell death (PCD) occurs in adults to maintain normal tissue homeostasis and during embryological development to shape tissues and…
Phagocytosis Assay for Apoptotic Cells in <em>Drosophila</em> Embryos
The molecular mechanisms underlying the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells need to be elucidated in more detail because of its role in immune and…
Quantitative Analysis of Autophagy using Advanced 3D Fluorescence Microscopy
Prostate cancer is the leading form of malignancies among men in the U.S. While surgery carries a significant risk of impotence and incontinence,…

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