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Chapter 5
Measures of Relative Standing

Review and Preview

Review and Preview

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In statistics, several tools are used to interpret the data. Measures of central tendency represent the characteristics of the data, such as mean,…
Introduction to <em>z</em> Scores

Introduction to z Scores

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A z score (or standardized value) is measured in units of the standard deviation. It tells you how many standard deviations the value x is above (to…
<em>z</em> Scores and Unusual Values

z Scores and Unusual Values

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The z score is one of the three measures of relative standing. It describes the location of a value in a dataset relative to the mean. z scores are…
Percentile

Percentile

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A percentile indicates the relative standing of a data value when data are sorted into numerical order from smallest to largest. It represents the…
Quartile

Quartile

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Quartiles are numbers that separate the data into quarters. Quartiles may or may not be part of the data. To find the quartiles, first, find the…
5-Number Summary

5-Number Summary

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In a dataset, the 5-number summary includes the minimum data value, the data value of the first quartile, the median data value or data value of the…
Boxplot

Boxplot

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Box plots (also called box-and-whisker plots or box-whisker plots) give an excellent graphical image of the concentration of the data. They also show…
What Are Outliers?

What Are Outliers?

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Outliers are observed data points that are far from the least squares line. They have unusual values and need to be examined carefully. Though an…
Modified Boxplots

Modified Boxplots

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A standard box and whisker plot informs us about the spread of the data in a given sample. One can identify the minimum value, maximum value, first…
Resolving Water, Proteins, and Lipids from In Vivo Confocal Raman Spectra of Stratum Corneum through a Chemometric Approach
Development of this in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopic method enables the direct measurement of water, proteins, and lipids with depth resolution…
Scanning Skeletal Remains for Bone Mineral Density in Forensic Contexts
The purpose of this paper is to introduce a promising, novel method to aid in the assessment of bone quality in forensically relevant skeletal…
A Simple Approach to Manipulate Dissolved Oxygen for Animal Behavior Observations
The ability to manipulate dissolved oxygen (DO) in a laboratory setting has significant application to investigate a number of ecological and…

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