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Chapter 18 Temperature and Heat

Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium

Heat and temperature are essential concepts for everyone every day. The study of heat and temperature is part of an area of physics known as…

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

Experimentally, if object A is in equilibrium with object B, and object B is in equilibrium with object C, then object A is in equilibrium with…

Thermometers and Temperature Scales

Any physical property that depends consistently and reproducibly on temperature can be used as the basis of a thermometer. For example, volume…

Gas Thermometers and the Kelvin Scale

The definition of temperature in terms of molecular motion suggests that there should be a lowest possible temperature, where the average kinetic…

Thermal Expansion

The expansion of alcohol in a thermometer is one of many commonly encountered examples of thermal expansion, which is the change in size or volume of…

Thermal Stress

If the temperature of an object is changed while it is prevented from expanding or contracting, the object is subjected to stress. The stress is…

Thermal expansion and Thermal stress: Problem Solving

San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge is exposed to temperatures ranging from -15 °C to 40 °C. At its coldest, the main span of the bridge…

Heat Flow and Specific Heat

Heat is a type of energy transfer that is caused by a temperature difference, and it can change the temperature of an object. Since heat is a form of…

Phase Changes

Phase transitions play an important theoretical and practical role in the study of heat flow. In melting or fusion, a solid turns into a liquid; the…

Calorimetry

When objects at different temperatures are placed in contact with each other but isolated from everything else, they attain thermal equilibrium. A…

Mechanisms of Heat Transfer I

Just as interesting as the effects of heat transfer on a system are the methods by which the heat transfer occur. Whenever there is a temperature…

Mechanisms of Heat Transfer II

In convection, thermal energy is carried by the large-scale flow of matter. Ocean currents and large-scale atmospheric circulation, which result from…

Conduction, Convection and Radiation: Problem Solving

There are three methods by which heat transfer can take place: conduction, convection, and radiation. Each method has unique and interesting…

The average temperature of Earth is the subject of much current discussion. Earth is in radiative contact with both the Sun and dark space; it…

The rate of heat transfer by emitted radiation is described by the Stefan-Boltzmann law of radiation: where σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant,…

Fabrication and Testing of Photonic Thermometers

In recent years, a push for developing novel silicon photonic devices for telecommunications has generated a vast knowledge base that is now being…

A Method for Studying the Temperature Dependence of Dynamic Fracture and Fragmentation

The dynamic fracture of a body is a late-stage phenomenon typically studied under simplified conditions, in which a sample is deformed under uniform…

Combining Microfluidics and Microrheology to Determine Rheological Properties of Soft Matter during Repeated Phase Transitions

The microstructure of soft matter directly impacts macroscopic rheological properties and can be changed by factors including colloidal rearrangement…

Ice Generation and the Heat and Mass Transfer Phenomena of Introducing Water to a Cold Bath of Brine

We demonstrate a method for the study of the heat and mass transfer and of the freezing phenomena in a subcooled brine environment. Our experiment…

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