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Chapter 19
The Kinetic Theory of Gases

Equation of State
The equation of state is an equation that relates physical quantities, such as pressure, volume, temperature, and the number of moles, of a…
Ideal Gas Equation
The ideal gas equation is an equation of state that relates the state variables pressure, volume, temperature, and the number of moles of a…
Van der Waals Equation
The ideal gas law is an approximation that works well at high temperatures and low pressures. The van der Waals equation of state (named after the…
pV-Diagrams
The pV diagram, which is a graph of pressure versus volume of the gas under study, is helpful in describing certain aspects of the substance. When…
Kinetic Theory of an Ideal Gas
A mole is defined as the amount of any substance that contains as many molecules as there are atoms in exactly 12 grams of carbon-12. An Italian…
Molecular Kinetic Energy
The word "gas" comes from the Flemish word meaning "chaos," first used to describe vapors by the chemist J. B. van Helmont.…
Distribution of Molecular Speeds
The motion of molecules in a gas is random in magnitude and direction for individual molecules, but a gas of many molecules has a predictable…
Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution: Problem Solving
Individual molecules in a gas move in random directions, but a gas containing numerous molecules has a predictable distribution of molecular speeds,…
Phase Diagram
The phase of a given substance depends on the pressure and temperature. Thus, plots of pressure versus temperature showing the phase in each region…
Mean free path and Mean free time
Consider the gas molecules in a cylinder. They move in a random motion as they collide with each other and change speed and direction. The average of…
Heat Capacity: Problem-Solving
The heat capacity of a gas is the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of gas by one degree Celsius. It is an…
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure
The partial pressure of a gas is a measure of the thermodynamic activity of the gas's molecules. The pressure that a gas would create if it…
Escape Velocities of Gases
To escape the Earth's gravity, an object near the top of the atmosphere at an altitude of 100 km must travel away from Earth at 11.1 km/s. This…

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