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Chapter 21
The Second Law of Thermodynamics

Reversible and Irreversible Processes
The thermodynamic processes can be classified into reversible and irreversible processes. The processes that can be restored to their initial state…
Heat Engines
A heat engine is a device used to extract heat from a source and then convert it into mechanical work used for various applications. For example, a…
Internal Combustion Engine
The internal combustion engine is a heat engine that uses the byproducts of combustion as the working fluid instead of using a heat transfer medium…
Otto and Diesel Cycle
An Otto engine is a four-stroke engine that uses a mixture of gasoline and air as the working fuel. The fuel is injected into the cylinder, and the…
Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
Refrigerators or heat pumps are heat engines operating in a reverse direction. For a refrigerator, the focus is on removing heat from a specific…
Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics
The second law of thermodynamics can be stated in several different ways, and all of them can be shown to imply the others. The Clausius’…
The Carnot Cycle
Converting work to heat is an irreversible process, and the purpose of a heat engine is to reverse the effect partially. Heat engines aim to increase…
Efficiency of The Carnot Cycle
The hypothetical Carnot cycle consists of an ideal gas subjected to two isothermal and two adiabatic processes. Since the internal energy of an ideal…
The Carnot Cycle and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
The Carnot engine works between two heat reservoirs of fixed temperatures. The Carnot cycle begs the following question: Is it possible to devise a…
Entropy
The first law of thermodynamics is quantitatively formulated via an equation relating the internal energy of a system, the heat exchanged by it, and…
Entropy Change in Reversible Processes
In the Carnot engine, which achieves the maximum efficiency between two reservoirs of fixed temperatures, the total change in entropy is zero. The…
Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
The second law of thermodynamics can be stated quantitatively using the concept of entropy. Entropy is the measure of disorder of the system. The…
Experimental System of Solar Adsorption Refrigeration with Concentrated Collector
To improve the performance of solar adsorption refrigeration, an experimental system with a solar concentration collector was set up and…
Bulk and Thin Film Synthesis of Compositionally Variant Entropy-stabilized Oxides
Here, we present a procedure for the synthesis of bulk and thin film multicomponent (Mg0.25(1-x)CoxNi0.25(1-x)Cu0.25(1-x)Zn0.25(1-x))O (Co variant)…
Using Wavelet Entropy to Demonstrate how Mindfulness Practice Increases Coordination between Irregular Cerebral and Cardiac Activities
In both the East and West, traditional teachings say that the mind and heart are somehow closely correlated, especially during spiritual practice.…
Determination of Thermodynamic Properties of Alkaline Earth-liquid Metal Alloys Using the Electromotive Force Technique
A novel electrochemical cell based on a CaF2 solid-state electrolyte has been developed to measure the electromotive force (emf) of binary alkaline…

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