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Chapter 22
Electric Charges and Fields

Electric Charges
From lightning during thunderstorms to electronic devices, the phenomenon of electromagnetism is all around us. The electromagnetic force is one of…
Sources and Properties of Electric Charge
All objects we see around us consist of atoms, which combine to form molecules. The lightest element in the universe is hydrogen, and a hydrogen atom…
Conductors and Insulators
Some materials may easily let electrical charges pass through them, while others obstruct their flow. The former are called conductors and the latter…
Charging Conductors By Induction
The Earth is a good conductor of electricity, and it is so big that it can be considered an infinite source or sink of charges. It can easily…
Coulomb's Law
Experiments with electric charges have shown that if two objects each have an electric charge, they exert an electric force on each other. The…
Coulomb's Law and The Principle of Superposition
Coulomb's Law describes the force experienced by two point charges under each other's presence. But what if there are more than two charges?…
Comparison Between Electrical And Gravitational Forces
There are four fundamental forces in nature: the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, the strong nuclear force, and the weak nuclear…
Electric Field
Consider two point charges, each exerting Coulomb force on the other. It is possible to describe the Coulomb interaction via an intermediate step by…
Electric Field of Two Equal and Opposite Charges
Atoms generally contain the same number of positively and negatively charged particles, protons, and electrons. Hence, they are electrically neutral.…
Continuous Charge Distributions
Imagine a bucket of water. It contains many molecules, of the order of 1026 molecules. Thus, although it contains discrete elements (molecules) at…
Electric Field of a Continuous Line Charge
In physics, symmetry in a system means that something in the considered system remains unchanged due to a specific operation to which it is…
Electric Field of a Charged Disk
The simplest case of a surface charge distribution is the uniformly charged disk. Calculating its electric field also helps us calculate the electric…
Electric Field Lines
The three-dimensional representation of the electric field of a positive point charge requires tracing the electric field vectors, whose lengths…
Properties of Electric Field Lines
The definition of electric field lines greatly eases the visualization of electric fields, a vector field, especially in the presence of many…
Electric Dipoles and Dipole Moment
Consider two charges of equal magnitude but opposite signs. If they cannot be separated by an external electric field, the system is called a…
Induced Electric Dipoles
A permanent electric dipole orients itself along an external electric field. This rotation can be quantified by defining the potential energy because…
Electric-field Control of Electronic States in WS<sub>2</sub> Nanodevices by Electrolyte Gating
A method of carrier number control by electrolyte gating is demonstrated. We have obtained WS2 thin flakes with atomically flat surface via scotch…
Finite Element Modelling of a Cellular Electric Microenvironment
Clinical studies show electrical stimulation (ES) to be a potential therapy for the healing and regeneration of various tissues. Understanding the…
Fabrication of a Dipole-assisted Solid Phase Extraction Microchip for Trace Metal Analysis in Water Samples
This paper describes a fabrication protocol for a dipole-assisted solid phase extraction (SPE) microchip available for trace metal analysis in water…

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