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# Chapter 22 Electric Charges and Fields

## Electric Charges

From lightning during thunderstorms to electronic devices, the phenomenon of electromagnetism is all around us. The electromagnetic force is one of…

## Sources and Properties of Electric Charge

All objects we see around us consist of atoms, which combine to form molecules. The lightest element in the universe is hydrogen, and a hydrogen atom…

## Conductors and Insulators

Some materials may easily let electrical charges pass through them, while others obstruct their flow. The former are called conductors and the latter…

## Charging Conductors By Induction

The Earth is a good conductor of electricity, and it is so big that it can be considered an infinite source or sink of charges. It can easily…

## Coulomb's Law

Experiments with electric charges have shown that if two objects each have an electric charge, they exert an electric force on each other. The…

## Coulomb's Law and The Principle of Superposition

Coulomb's Law describes the force experienced by two point charges under each other's presence. But what if there are more than two charges?…

## Comparison Between Electrical And Gravitational Forces

There are four fundamental forces in nature: the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, the strong nuclear force, and the weak nuclear…

## Electric Field

Consider two point charges, each exerting Coulomb force on the other. It is possible to describe the Coulomb interaction via an intermediate step by…

## Electric Field of Two Equal and Opposite Charges

Atoms generally contain the same number of positively and negatively charged particles, protons, and electrons. Hence, they are electrically neutral.…

## Continuous Charge Distributions

Imagine a bucket of water. It contains many molecules, of the order of 1026 molecules. Thus, although it contains discrete elements (molecules) at…

## Electric Field of a Continuous Line Charge

In physics, symmetry in a system means that something in the considered system remains unchanged due to a specific operation to which it is…

## Electric Field of a Charged Disk

The simplest case of a surface charge distribution is the uniformly charged disk. Calculating its electric field also helps us calculate the electric…

## Electric Field Lines

The three-dimensional representation of the electric field of a positive point charge requires tracing the electric field vectors, whose lengths…

## Properties of Electric Field Lines

The definition of electric field lines greatly eases the visualization of electric fields, a vector field, especially in the presence of many…

## Electric Dipoles and Dipole Moment

Consider two charges of equal magnitude but opposite signs. If they cannot be separated by an external electric field, the system is called a…

## Induced Electric Dipoles

A permanent electric dipole orients itself along an external electric field. This rotation can be quantified by defining the potential energy because…

## Electric-field Control of Electronic States in WS2 Nanodevices by Electrolyte Gating

A method of carrier number control by electrolyte gating is demonstrated. We have obtained WS2 thin flakes with atomically flat surface via scotch…

## Finite Element Modelling of a Cellular Electric Microenvironment

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Clinical studies show electrical stimulation (ES) to be a potential therapy for the healing and regeneration of various tissues. Understanding the…

## Fabrication of a Dipole-assisted Solid Phase Extraction Microchip for Trace Metal Analysis in Water Samples

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This paper describes a fabrication protocol for a dipole-assisted solid phase extraction (SPE) microchip available for trace metal analysis in water…

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