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# Chapter 27 Direct-Current Circuits

## Electromotive Force

Electromotive force (emf) is the force that causes current to flow from a higher to a lower  potential. The term "electromotive…

## Resistors In Series

A resistor is an ohmic device that limits the flow of charge in a circuit. Most circuits have more than one resistor. If several resistors are…

## Resistors In Parallel

Resistors are in parallel when one end of all the resistors are connected to a continuous wire of negligible resistance and the other end of all the…

## Combination Of Resistors

Electrical devices in any circuit can be connected either by series or parallel connections. Additionally, circuits can be connected involving both…

## Kirchhoff's Rules

Gustav Kirchhoff (1824–1887) devised two rules known as Kirchhoff's rules to analyze complex circuits, which cannot be analyzed with…

## Kirchoff's Rules: Application

Kirchhoff's rules quantify the current flowing through a circuit and the voltage variations around the loop in a circuit. Applying…

## DC Battery

A conductor needs to be a component of a path that creates a closed loop or full circuit to have a continuous current flowing through it. A current…

## Multiple Voltage Sources

Generally, a single battery is not enough to power some devices. In such cases, batteries can be combined in two ways: in series or in parallel. In…

## Galvanometer

Common devices, including car instrument panels, battery chargers, and inexpensive electrical instruments, measure potential difference (voltage),…

## Ammeter

An ammeter is a current measuring instrument. In the circuit, it is represented by the symbol A. The ammeter is placed in series with the device or…

## Voltmeter

A voltmeter is an electrical device that measures the potential difference or voltage between two points. It is connected in parallel with the…

## Potentiometer

Voltage and current measurements using a standard voltmeter and ammeter alter the circuit being measured either by drawing or resisting the current…

## Wheatstone Bridge

An ohmmeter is a resistance-measuring device. It works by applying a voltage to a resistor of unknown resistance and measuring the current across the…

## Power Dissipated in a Circuit: Problem Solving

The equivalent resistance of a combination of resistors depends on their values and how they are connected. The simplest combinations of resistors…

## RC Circuits: Charging A Capacitor

A circuit containing resistance and capacitance is called an RC circuit. A capacitor is an electrical component that stores electric charge by…

## RC Circuits: Discharging A Capacitor

One of the applications of an RC circuit is the relaxation oscillator. The relaxation oscillator comprises a voltage source, a capacitor, a resistor,…

## Applications of RC Circuits

A relaxation oscillator is one of the applications of RC circuits. A neon lamp relaxation oscillator comprises a capacitor, a resistor, a voltage…

## Household Wiring And Electrical Safety

Companies that supply power to most modern households use three conductors, typically called a three-wire line. While one is neutral, the other two…

## A Micro-agar Salt Bridge Electrode for Analyzing the Proton Turnover Rate of Recombinant Membrane Proteins

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To date, more than 50% of all pharmacological drugs target the transport kinetics of membrane proteins. The electrophysiological characterization of…

## Modeling Biological Membranes with Circuit Boards and Measuring Electrical Signals in Axons: Student Laboratory Exercises

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This is a demonstration of how electrical models can be used to characterize biological membranes. This exercise also introduces biophysical…

## Gain-compensation Methodology for a Sinusoidal Scan of a Galvanometer Mirror in Proportional-Integral-Differential Control Using Pre-emphasis Techniques

Galvanometer mirrors are used for optical applications such as target tracking, drawing, and scanning control because of their high speed and…

## A Simple Approach to Perform TEER Measurements Using a Self-Made Volt-Amperemeter with Programmable Output Frequency

Transepithelial/endothelial electrical resistance (TEER) has been used since the 1980s to determine confluency and permeability of in vitro barrier…

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