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Chapter 27
Direct-Current Circuits

Electromotive Force
Electromotive force (emf) is the force that causes current to flow from a higher to a lower  potential. The term "electromotive…
Resistors In Series
A resistor is an ohmic device that limits the flow of charge in a circuit. Most circuits have more than one resistor. If several resistors are…
Resistors In Parallel
Resistors are in parallel when one end of all the resistors are connected to a continuous wire of negligible resistance and the other end of all the…
Combination Of Resistors
Electrical devices in any circuit can be connected either by series or parallel connections. Additionally, circuits can be connected involving both…
Kirchhoff's Rules
Gustav Kirchhoff (1824–1887) devised two rules known as Kirchhoff's rules to analyze complex circuits, which cannot be analyzed with…
Kirchoff's Rules: Application
Kirchhoff's rules quantify the current flowing through a circuit and the voltage variations around the loop in a circuit. Applying…
DC Battery
A conductor needs to be a component of a path that creates a closed loop or full circuit to have a continuous current flowing through it. A current…
Multiple Voltage Sources
Generally, a single battery is not enough to power some devices. In such cases, batteries can be combined in two ways: in series or in parallel. In…
Galvanometer
Common devices, including car instrument panels, battery chargers, and inexpensive electrical instruments, measure potential difference (voltage),…
Ammeter
An ammeter is a current measuring instrument. In the circuit, it is represented by the symbol A. The ammeter is placed in series with the device or…
Voltmeter
A voltmeter is an electrical device that measures the potential difference or voltage between two points. It is connected in parallel with the…
Potentiometer
Voltage and current measurements using a standard voltmeter and ammeter alter the circuit being measured either by drawing or resisting the current…
Wheatstone Bridge
An ohmmeter is a resistance-measuring device. It works by applying a voltage to a resistor of unknown resistance and measuring the current across the…
Power Dissipated in a Circuit: Problem Solving
The equivalent resistance of a combination of resistors depends on their values and how they are connected. The simplest combinations of resistors…
RC Circuits: Charging A Capacitor
A circuit containing resistance and capacitance is called an RC circuit. A capacitor is an electrical component that stores electric charge by…
RC Circuits: Discharging A Capacitor
One of the applications of an RC circuit is the relaxation oscillator. The relaxation oscillator comprises a voltage source, a capacitor, a resistor,…
Applications of RC Circuits
A relaxation oscillator is one of the applications of RC circuits. A neon lamp relaxation oscillator comprises a capacitor, a resistor, a voltage…
Household Wiring And Electrical Safety
Companies that supply power to most modern households use three conductors, typically called a three-wire line. While one is neutral, the other two…
A Micro-agar Salt Bridge Electrode for Analyzing the Proton Turnover Rate of Recombinant Membrane Proteins
To date, more than 50% of all pharmacological drugs target the transport kinetics of membrane proteins. The electrophysiological characterization of…
Modeling Biological Membranes with Circuit Boards and Measuring Electrical Signals in Axons: Student Laboratory Exercises
This is a demonstration of how electrical models can be used to characterize biological membranes. This exercise also introduces biophysical…
Gain-compensation Methodology for a Sinusoidal Scan of a Galvanometer Mirror in Proportional-Integral-Differential Control Using Pre-emphasis Techniques
Galvanometer mirrors are used for optical applications such as target tracking, drawing, and scanning control because of their high speed and…
A Simple Approach to Perform TEER Measurements Using a Self-Made Volt-Amperemeter with Programmable Output Frequency
Transepithelial/endothelial electrical resistance (TEER) has been used since the 1980s to determine confluency and permeability of in vitro barrier…

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