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Chapter 28
Magnetic Forces and Fields

Magnetism
Magnets are commonly found in everyday objects, such as toys, hangers, elevators, doorbells, and computer devices. Experimentation on these magnets…
Magnetic Fields
A moving charge or a current creates a magnetic field in the surrounding space, in addition to its electric field. The magnetic field exerts a force…
Magnetic Field Lines
The representation of magnetic fields by magnetic field lines is very useful in visualizing the strength and direction of the magnetic field. Each of…
Magnetic Flux
The magnetic flux measures the number of magnetic field lines passing through a given surface area. The SI unit for magnetic flux is the weber (Wb).…
Motion Of A Charged Particle In A Magnetic Field
A charged particle experiences a force when moving through a magnetic field. Consider the field to be uniform and the charged particle to move…
Magnetic Force
In addition to the electric forces between electric charges, moving electric charges exert magnetic forces on each other. A magnetic field is created…
Magnetic Force On A Current-Carrying Conductor
Moving charges experience a force in a magnetic field. Since the magnetic fields produced by moving charges are proportional to the current, a…
Magnetic Force On Current-Carrying Wires: Example
In a magnetic field, moving charges encounter a force. If a wire contains these moving charges, i.e., if the wire is carrying a current, then a force…
Force On A Current Loop In A Magnetic Field
Magnetic forces on wires carrying current are most frequently applied in motors. A DC motor is a device that converts electrical energy into…
Torque On A Current Loop In A Magnetic Field
The most common application of magnetic force on current-carrying wires is in electric motors. These consist of loops of wire, which are placed…
The Hall Effect
Edwin H. Hall, in the year 1879, devised an experiment that could be used to identify the polarity of the predominant charge carriers in a conducting…
Thomson's e/m Experiment
In a beam of charged particles created by a heated cathode, the particles move at different speeds. However, many applications need a beam with…
Enhancement of the Initial Growth Rate of Agricultural Plants by Using Static Magnetic Fields
Electronic devices and high-voltage wires induce magnetic fields. A magnetic field of 1,300-2,500 Gauss (0.2 Tesla) was applied to Petri dishes…
A Paired Bead and Magnet Array for Molding Microwells with Variable Concave Geometries
A spheroid culture is a useful tool for understanding cellular behavior in that it provides an in vivo-like three-dimensional environment. Various…
Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 7 Tesla
CMR at an ultra-high field (magnetic field strength B0 ≥ 7 Tesla) benefits from the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) advantage inherent at…

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