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Chapter 33
Electromagnetic Waves

Electromagnetic Waves
James Clerk Maxwell formulated a single theory combining all the electric and magnetic effects scientists knew during that time, calling the…
Generating Electromagnetic Radiations
The German physicist Heinrich Hertz (1857–1894) was the first to generate and detect certain types of electromagnetic waves in the laboratory.…
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Electromagnetic waves are categorized according to their wavelengths and frequencies, giving the electromagnetic spectrum. These waves are classified…
Electromagnetic Wave Equation
Maxwell's equations for electromagnetic fields are related to source charges, either static or moving. These fields act on a test charge, whose…
Plane Electromagnetic Waves I
The existence of combined electric and magnetic fields that propagate through space as electromagnetic (EM) waves is the most significant prediction…
Plane Electromagnetic Waves II
Consider a plane wavefront traveling in position x-direction with a constant speed. This wavefront can be utilized to obtain the relationship between…
Propagation Speed of Electromagnetic Waves
Electromagnetic waves are consistent with Ampere's law. Assuming there is no conduction current Ampere's law is given as: Consider a plane…
Electromagnetic Waves in Matter
Electromagnetic waves can travel in the vacuum as well as in matter. For example light, which is an electromagnetic wave, can travel through air,…
Energy Carried By Electromagnetic Waves
Anyone who has used a microwave oven knows there is energy in electromagnetic waves. Sometimes, this energy is obvious, such as in the summer…
Intensity Of Electromagnetic Waves
The energy transport per unit area per unit time, or the Poynting vector, gives the energy flux of an electromagnetic wave at any specific time. For…
Momentum And Radiation Pressure
An object absorbing an electromagnetic wave would experience a force in the direction of propagation of the wave. This force occurs because…
Radiation Pressure: Problem Solving
The radiation pressure applied by an electromagnetic wave on a perfectly absorbing surface equals the energy density of the wave. The wave's…
Standing Electromagnetic Waves
Electromagnetic waves can be reflected; the surface of a conductor or a dielectric can act as a reflector. As electric and magnetic fields obey the…
Standing Waves in a Cavity
A household microwave and lasers are examples of standing electromagnetic waves in a cavity. When two conducting metal plates are placed parallel at…
Continuous-Wave Propagation Channel-Sounding Measurement System - Testing, Verification, and Measurements
Channel sounders are used to measure channel characteristics for radio systems. There are several types of channel sounders used today:…
Method for Recording Broadband High Resolution Emission Spectra of Laboratory Lightning Arcs
Lightning is one of the most common and destructive forces in nature and has long been studied using spectroscopic techniques, first with traditional…
Spectral and Angle-Resolved Magneto-Optical Characterization of Photonic Nanostructures
Photonic crystals are periodic nanostructures that can support a variety of confined electromagnetic modes. Such confined modes are usually…
Fabrication and Operation of a Nano-Optical Conveyor Belt
The technique of using focused laser beams to trap and exert forces on small particles has enabled many pivotal discoveries in the nanoscale…

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