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Chapter 1
General Pharmacological Principles

Drug Discovery: Overview
Drug discovery is a multifaceted process involving extensive screening, testing, and optimization of lead compounds to identify potential new drugs…
Preclinical Development: Overview
Preclinical development consists of a series of tests that ensure the safety and efficacy of a new therapeutic compound before it is tested in…
Clinical Trials: Overview
Clinical development focuses on how the drug will interact with the human body and encompasses four key phases of clinical trials, each serving a…
Drug Nomenclature
During the development of a new pharmaceutical, the manufacturer initially assigns a code name to the drug. Once approved, the drug receives a United…
Drug Regulation
Drug regulation encompasses the management of drug usage by evaluating its safety and efficacy through assessments conducted by regulatory…
Drug Classes and Categories
Drugs can be classified according to their chemical composition or their intended therapeutic application. For instance, anti-infective agents that…
Drug-Receptor Bonds
Drug-receptor bonds are formed through various chemical forces when drugs interact with target cells. Covalent bonds, strong and irreversible, are…
Drug-Receptor Interactions
Drug-receptor interaction describes the binding of receptors by drugs, but not all drug-receptor interactions result in activation and tissue…
Routes of Drug Administration: Overview
Drug administration involves delivering drugs to the body through various routes, such as enteral, parenteral, and topical. Enteral administration…
Routes of Drug Administration: Enteral
Medications can be administered through the enteral route using liquids, capsules, or tablets. Enteral administration involves drug administration…
Routes of Drug Administration: Parenteral
The administration of drugs via parenteral routes allows for direct drug introduction into the systemic circulation, resulting in high…
Additional Routes of Drug Administration
Choosing the appropriate route of drug administration is significantly influenced by two key factors: the therapeutic objectives and the inherent…
Prescription, Nonprescription and Orphan Drugs
Prescription drugs require a prescription from a medical practitioner and can only be obtained from a pharmacy. They have many applications,…
Factors Affecting Drug Response: Overview
When it comes to infants and young children, they are typically administered smaller doses of medication in comparison to adults. This is primarily…
Systematic Approach to Identify Novel Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Molecules from Plants' Extracts and Fractions to Prevent Dental Caries
Natural products provide structurally different substances, with a myriad of biological activities. However, the identification and isolation of…
A Clinical Trial Assessing the Safety, Efficacy, and Delivery of Olive-Oil-Based Three-Chamber Bags for Parenteral Nutrition
Limited evidence exists to precisely estimate efficacy and safety differences between parenteral nutrition (PN) prepared using olive-oil-based…
Manual Restraint and Common Compound Administration Routes in Mice and Rats
Being able to safely and effectively restrain mice and rats is an important part of conducting research. Working confidently and humanely with mice…

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