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Chapter 8
Local Anesthetics

Local Anesthetics: Chemistry and Structure-Activity Relationship
Local anesthetics (LAs) are drugs that induce a temporary loss of sensation in a limited body area, preventing pain. Cocaine was the first local…
Local Anesthetics: Mechanism of Action
Local anesthetics (LAs) block sensory and motor impulses by inhibiting the sodium channels on the nerve cell membranes. This induces temporary loss…
Local Anesthetics: Pharmacokinetics
The potency and duration of action of local anesthetics (LAs) are determined by their pharmacokinetics. Pharmacokinetics describes how LAs are…
Local Anesthetics: Differential Sensitivity of Nerve Fibers
Local anesthetics (LAs) block the sodium channels of nerve trunks, sensory nerve endings, and neuromuscular junctions. Although LAs can block all…
Local Anesthetics: Common Agents and Their Applications
Local anesthetics (LAs) are commonly used for various applications in medical and dental procedures. Some of the common agents used are cocaine,…
Local Anesthetics: Adverse Effects
While local anesthetics are generally safe and well-tolerated, they can occasionally cause adverse effects that vary in severity. Local anesthetics…
Local Anesthetics: Clinical Application as Surface, Infiltration, and Conduction Block Anesthesia
Depending on the target organ, local anesthetics (LAs) can be administered via various routes. In surface anesthesia, LAs are applied directly to the…
Local Anesthetics: Clinical Application as Spinal Anesthesia
Spinal anesthetics are given during lower abdomen and limb surgeries to block sensory and motor neurons. They are administered in the mid to low…
Local Anesthetics: Clinical Application as Epidural Anesthesia
Epidural anesthetics are administered in the fat-filled epidural space, the outermost part of the spinal canal. This technique is commonly employed…
Local Anesthetics: Clinical Application as Intravenous Regional Anesthesia
Intravenous regional anesthesia or the Bier block technique is used to anesthetize a specific limb or extremity. It uses exsanguinated or…
Assessing Changes in Volatile General Anesthetic Sensitivity of Mice after Local or Systemic Pharmacological Intervention
One desirable endpoint of general anesthesia is the state of unconsciousness, also known as hypnosis. Defining the hypnotic state in animals is…
CO<sub>2</sub>-Lasertonsillotomy Under Local Anesthesia in Adults
Tonsil-related complaints are very common among the adult population. Tonsillectomy under general anesthesia is currently the most performed surgical…
An Anesthesia, Surgery, and Harvest Method for the Evaluation of Transpedicular Screws Using an <em>In Vivo</em> Porcine Lumbar Spine Model
Pedicle screw fixation is the gold standard for the treatment of spinal diseases. However, many studies have reported the issue of loosening pedicle…

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