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Chapter 0
Physics Basics

Introduction to Scalars
Many familiar physical quantities can be specified completely by giving a single number and the appropriate unit. For example, "a class period…
Vector Product (Cross Product)
Vector multiplication of two vectors yields a vector product, with the magnitude equal to the product of the individual vectors multiplied by the…
Introduction to Vectors
To define some physical quantities, there is a need to specify both magnitude as well as direction. For example, when the U.S. Coast Guard dispatches…
Units and Standards of Measurement
A physical quantity is defined either by specifying its measurement method or by stating how it is calculated from other measurements. For example,…
Accuracy and Precision
Scientists typically make repeated measurements of a quantity to ensure the quality of their findings and to evaluate both the precision and the…
Rules for Significant Figures
In any measurement, the precision of the measuring tool is an essential factor. An ordinary ruler, for example, can measure length to the closest…
Random and Systematic Errors
Scientists always try their best to record measurements with the utmost accuracy and precision. However, sometimes errors do occur. These errors can…
Position and Displacement
The position of an object defines its location relative to a convenient frame of reference at any particular time. A frame of reference is an…
Position and Displacement Vectors
To describe the motion of an object, one should first be able to describe its position (where it is at any particular time). More precisely, the…
Mass and Weight
Mass and weight are often used interchangeably in everyday conversation. For example,  medical records often show our weight in kilograms, but…
Newton's Second Law
Newton's second law is closely related to his first law of motion. It mathematically gives the cause-and-effect relationship between force and…
Tension
Tension is a force along the length of a medium, in particular, a force carried by a flexible medium, such as a rope or cable. The word…
Gravitation
In the years before Newton, a general belief prevailed that different laws governed objects in the sky than objects on Earth. When Kepler wrote down…
Measuring Spatially- and Directionally-varying Light Scattering from Biological Material
Light interacts with an organism's integument on a variety of spatial scales. For example in an iridescent bird: nano-scale structures produce color;…
High-speed Particle Image Velocimetry Near Surfaces

High-speed Particle Image Velocimetry Near Surfaces

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Multi-dimensional and transient flows play a key role in many areas of science, engineering, and health sciences but are often not well understood.…
Near-Infrared Temperature Measurement Technique for Water Surrounding an Induction-heated Small Magnetic Sphere
A technique to measure the temperature of water and non-turbid aqueous media surrounding an induction-heated small magnetic sphere is presented. This…

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