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# Chapter 0 Physics Basics

## Introduction to Scalars

Many familiar physical quantities can be specified completely by giving a single number and the appropriate unit. For example, "a class period…

## Vector Product (Cross Product)

Vector multiplication of two vectors yields a vector product, with the magnitude equal to the product of the individual vectors multiplied by the…

## Introduction to Vectors

To define some physical quantities, there is a need to specify both magnitude as well as direction. For example, when the U.S. Coast Guard dispatches…

## Units and Standards of Measurement

A physical quantity is defined either by specifying its measurement method or by stating how it is calculated from other measurements. For example,…

## Accuracy and Precision

Scientists typically make repeated measurements of a quantity to ensure the quality of their findings and to evaluate both the precision and the…

## Rules for Significant Figures

In any measurement, the precision of the measuring tool is an essential factor. An ordinary ruler, for example, can measure length to the closest…

## Random and Systematic Errors

Scientists always try their best to record measurements with the utmost accuracy and precision. However, sometimes errors do occur. These errors can…

## Position and Displacement

The position of an object defines its location relative to a convenient frame of reference at any particular time. A frame of reference is an…

## Position and Displacement Vectors

To describe the motion of an object, one should first be able to describe its position (where it is at any particular time). More precisely, the…

## Mass and Weight

Mass and weight are often used interchangeably in everyday conversation. For example,  medical records often show our weight in kilograms, but…

## Newton's Second Law

Newton's second law is closely related to his first law of motion. It mathematically gives the cause-and-effect relationship between force and…

## Tension

Tension is a force along the length of a medium, in particular, a force carried by a flexible medium, such as a rope or cable. The word…

## Gravitation

In the years before Newton, a general belief prevailed that different laws governed objects in the sky than objects on Earth. When Kepler wrote down…

## Measuring Spatially- and Directionally-varying Light Scattering from Biological Material

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Light interacts with an organism's integument on a variety of spatial scales. For example in an iridescent bird: nano-scale structures produce color;…

## High-speed Particle Image Velocimetry Near Surfaces

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Multi-dimensional and transient flows play a key role in many areas of science, engineering, and health sciences but are often not well understood.…

## Near-Infrared Temperature Measurement Technique for Water Surrounding an Induction-heated Small Magnetic Sphere

A technique to measure the temperature of water and non-turbid aqueous media surrounding an induction-heated small magnetic sphere is presented. This…

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