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Chapter 18
Stress and Strain - Axial Loading

Normal Strain under Axial Loading
Normal strain under axial loading is an important concept in the field of mechanics of materials. Axial loading implies the application of a force…
Stress-Strain Diagram
A stress-strain diagram is a crucial tool that graphically displays a material's mechanical characteristics. This diagram is derived from a…
Stress-Strain Diagram - Ductile Materials
The stress-strain relationship in ductile materials such as structural steel or aluminium is intricate and progresses through several stages. When a…
Stress-Strain Diagram - Brittle Materials
Brittle materials, including glass, cast iron, and stone, exhibit unique characteristics. They fracture without considerable change in their…
True Stress and True Strain
Engineering stress is calculated as the load divided by the original, undeformed cross-sectional area. It approximates a material under load. This…
Hooke's Law
Hooke's law, a pivotal principle in material science, establishes that the strain a material undergoes is directly proportional to the applied…
Plastic Behavior
A material's elastic behavior is characterized by the disappearance of stress once the load is removed, allowing the material to return to its…
Fatigue
Fatigue occurs when materials rupture under repeated or fluctuating loads, even at stress levels far below their static breaking strength. It…
Deformation of Member under Multiple Loadings
When a rod is made of different materials or has various cross-sections, it must be divided into parts that meet the necessary conditions for…
Statically Indeterminate Problem Solving
Statically indeterminate problems are those where statics alone can not determine the internal forces or reactions. Consider a structure comprising…
Thermal Strain
Thermal strain is a concept that arises when we consider how temperature changes affect structures. Unlike the conventional assumption that…
Temperature Dependent Deformation
In a nonhomogeneous rod made up of steel and brass, restrained at both ends and subjected to a temperature change, several steps are involved in…
Poisson's Ratio
Poisson's ratio is a material property that indicates their stress response. It explains the connection between the elongation or compression a…
Generalized Hooke's Law
The generalized Hooke's Law is a broadened version of Hooke's Law, which extends to all types of stress and in every direction. Consider an…
Bulk Modulus
The bulk modulus is a scientific term used to describe a material's resistance to uniform compression. It is the proportionality constant that…
Shearing Strain
The shearing strain represents a cubic element's angular change when subjected to shearing stress. This type of stress can transform a cube into…
Relation between Poisson's ratio, Modulus of Elasticity and Modulus of Rigidity
Deformation occurs in axial and transverse directions when an axial load is applied to a slender bar. This deformation impacts the cubic element…
Saint-Venant's Principle
The principle of Saint-Venant postulates that the stress distribution within a structural member does not rely on the precise method of load…
Stress Concentrations
Stress concentration is when stress intensifies near discontinuities such as holes or abrupt cross-sectional changes in a structural member. This…
Residual Stresses
Residual stresses reside in a structure even after removing the original stress inducer. This phenomenon often arises from varied plastic…
Intermediate Strain Rate Material Characterization with Digital Image Correlation
The mechanical response of a material under dynamic load is typically different than its behavior under static conditions; therefore, the common…
Strain Sensing Based on Multiscale Composite Materials Reinforced with Graphene Nanoplatelets
The electrical response of NH2-functionalized graphene nanoplatelets composite materials under strain was studied. Two different manufacturing…
Full-field Strain Measurements for Microstructurally Small Fatigue Crack Propagation Using Digital Image Correlation Method
A novel measurement approach is used to reveal the cumulative deformation field at a sub-grain level and to study the influence of microstructure on…

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