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Chapter 4
Introduction to Separation Methods

States of Matter and Phase Changes
The internal energy of a substance—the total kinetic energy of all its molecules and the potential energy of their associated…
Distillation: Vapor–Liquid Equilibria
Distillation is a separation technique that takes advantage of the boiling point properties of disparate elements in a mixture. To perform…
Filtration
Filtration is a physical separation process that involves passing a suspension through a porous medium to separate solids from fluids. During…
Centrifugation
Centrifugation is a separation technique based on differences in density or size. It is commonly used to separate solids from aqueous interferents.…
Sublimation
Sublimation is the direct transformation of a solid to a gaseous state. For instance, at standard pressure and room temperature, solid carbon dioxide…
Recrystallization: Solid–Solution Equilibria
Recrystallization is a purification technique used to separate impurities from solid compounds. In this technique, no chemical reactions occur.…
Crystal Growth: Principles of Crystallization
Crystallization is a phase transformation process in which crystals are precipitated from a supersaturated solution or formed from other sources.…
Precipitation and Co-precipitation
Precipitation and coprecipitation methods can be used to separate a mixture of ions in a solution. In qualitative inorganic analysis, ions that form…
Coagulation
Colloidal solids are solid particles suspended in solution. They are usually negatively charged, attracting a compact primary layer of positively…
Electrodeposition
Electrodeposition is a technique used to separate an analyte from interferents by electrochemical processes. Here, the analyte is a metal ion that…
Extraction: Partition and Distribution Coefficients
The distribution law or Nernst's distribution law is the law that governs the distribution of a solute between two immiscible solvents. This law,…
Extraction: Effects of pH
Consider a neutral form of an amine, B, with a partition coefficient, K, in a liquid mixture containing organic and aqueous phases. The pH of the…
Extraction: Advanced Methods
Metal ions can be separated from one another by complexation with organic ligands–the chelating agent– to form uncharged chelates. Here,…
Chromatography: Introduction
Chromatography is a technique used to separate compounds based on differences of partitioning between two phases, the stationary phase and the mobile…
Dialysis
Dialysis is a diffusion-based purification process that separates analyte molecules from a complex matrix. This is accomplished by allowing molecules…
Volatilization
Volatilization gravimetry is an analytical technique that measures the mass lost due to the volatilization of the substance. This technique is used…
Ion Exchange
Ion exchange chromatography separates charged molecules from a solution by reversibly exchanging them with mobile, or 'active', ions…
Small Volume (1-3L) Filtration of Coastal Seawater Samples
The workflow begins with the collection of coastal marine waters for downstream microbial community, nutrient and trace gas analyses. For today s…
Sperm Collection of Differential Quality Using Density Gradient Centrifugation
In sexual reproduction, a male gamete or sperm cell fuses with a female gamete to bring about fertilization. However, a large number of sperm cells…

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