# Transformations of Stress and Strain

## Transformation of Plane Stress

Consider a point on a cube experiencing plane stress, defined by its stress components. If the element rotates by an angle, its stress components change. …

## Principal Stresses

The normal and shearing stress equations of the transformed plane, when graphed, form a circle that demonstrates their relationship for any given angular …

## Principal Stresses: Problem Solving

Two planes that are at right angles carry shearing stress along with tensile and compressive stresses. With known stress values, determine the principal …

## Mohr's Circle for Plane Stress

Mohr's circle is a visual representation of stress transformation on an element. The stress components in this element are plotted on a graph to …

## General State of Stress

The general state of stress refers to the various forces and pressures an object experiences. Consider a tetrahedron with one face perpendicular to a line …

## Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials under Plane Stress

Structural elements and machine parts made from ductile materials are designed to resist yielding under an expected load. The yield point is identified …

## Transformation of Plane Strain

Consider a long bar subjected to uniformly distributed loads on its sides. In such bars, the transformation of plane strain under a rotation of coordinate …

## Mohr's Circle for Plane Strain

Mohr's circle analyzes plane strain by plotting points with the abscissa equal to the normal strain and the ordinate equal to half the shearing …

## Three-Dimensional Analysis of Strain

Three-dimensional strain analysis uses principal stress axes to evaluate deformation in elastic, homogeneous materials. A small cubic element, when …

## Measurements of Strain

Strain measures the deformation or displacement in a material. Normal strain is calculated by comparing lengths before and after a load is applied. A more …

## Fabrication of Mechanically Tunable and Bioactive Metal Scaffolds for Biomedical Applications

Biometal systems have been widely used for biomedical applications, in particular, as load-bearing materials. However, major challenges are high stiffness …

## Subject-specific Musculoskeletal Model for Studying Bone Strain During Dynamic Motion

Bone stress injuries are common in sports and military trainings. Repetitive large ground impact forces during training could be the cause. It is …

## Production of a Strain-Measuring Device with an Improved 3D Printer

A traditional strain measurement sensor needs to be electrified and is susceptible to electromagnetic interference. In order to solve the fluctuations in …