# Energy Methods

## Strain Energy

Consider a rod fixed at one end and subjected to an axial force at the free end, which induces stress and leads to elongation in the rod.  As the …

## Strain-Energy Density

An axial load causes a rod to elongate, and store strain energy in it. The strain energy density in the rod is the energy per unit volume. Here, the ratio …

## Elastic Strain Energy for Normal Stresses

When a material is subjected to an axial loading, it experiences normal stress, leading to strain energy generation. This equation is valid for uniformly …

## Elastic Strain Energy for Shearing Stresses

When the material is subjected to a shearing stress, the strain energy density can be expressed in integral form as the product of the shearing stress and …

Consider a rod of uniform cross-sectional area fixed at one end. When another moving object hits the free end of the rod, the rod deforms, and stress is …

Consider a cantilever beam fixed at one end, having a circular cross-section. If an object is dropped on the free end of the cantilever from a height h, …

## Castigliano's Theorem

Castigliano's theorem is useful for determining displacements and rotations in structures undergoing elastic deformations. It states that the partial …

## Castigliano's Theorem: Problem Solving

Consider a simply supported beam PQ of length L, carrying a point load F at the center. What will be the deflection at the center of the beam? Here, the …

## Structural Design and Manufacturing of a Cruiser Class Solar Vehicle

Cruisers are multi-occupant solar vehicles that are conceived to compete in long-range (over 3,000 km) solar races based on the best compromise between …

## Design and Application of a Fault Detection Method Based on Adaptive Filters and Rotational Speed Estimation for an Electro-Hydrostatic Actuator

The electro-hydrostatic actuator (EHA) is a promising actuating apparatus used in flight control systems for more electric aircraft (MEA) due to its high …

## Mechanoluminescent Visualization of Crack Propagation for Joint Evaluation

In this study, methods for the mechanoluminescent (ML) visualization of crack propagation and mechanical behavior to evaluate adhesive joints are …