# Alternating-Current Circuits

## AC Sources

Direct current is a flow of electric charge in only one direction and has a steady state of constant voltage in the circuit. Rectifiers, batteries, …

## Resistor in an AC Circuit

An alternating emf or voltage source is needed to supply an alternating current (AC) to a circuit. A coil of wire rotating in a magnetic field at a …

## Capacitor in an AC Circuit

A capacitor is charged by passing an electric current through it, which causes the plates to start accumulating an electrostatic charge. Since the …

## Inductor in an AC Circuit

The basic components of an inductor are coils or loops of wire that are either wound around a hollow tube former or a ferromagnetic material (iron-cored) …

## RLC Series Circuits: Introduction

Consider an RLC series circuit consisting of a resistor, an inductor, and a capacitor connected to an AC voltage source. A current, which varies …

## RLC Series Circuits: Impedance

When current flow is opposed in a DC or AC circuit, it is referred to as resistance or impedance, respectively. Impedance plays a key role in determining …

## RLC Series Circuit: Problem-Solving

Consider an AC generator with a frequency of 50 hertz and a voltage of 120 volts. The AC generator is connected to an RLC series circuit with a 20-ohms …

## Power in an AC Circuit

In a DC circuit, the power consumed is simply the product of the DC voltage times the DC current, given in watts. However, the power consumed for AC …

## Resonance in an AC Circuit

The property of an inductor makes it resist any change in the current passing through it, while the property of a capacitor is to build up the charge …

## Transformers

A device that transforms voltages from one value to another using induction is called a transformer. A transformer consists of two separate coils, or …

## Types Of Transformers

Transformers can provide desired voltages to a circuit by modifying the number of turns in the secondary windings. If the ratio of the number of turns in …

## Energy Losses in Transformers

In an ideal transformer, it is assumed that there are no energy losses, and, hence, all the power at the primary winding is transferred to the secondary …

## RMS Value in AC Circuit

The root mean square (RMS) value is a measure of the effective or average value of an alternating current (AC) waveform. In AC circuits, the voltage or …

## Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing for the Quantification of Endothelial Proliferation, Barrier Function, and Motility

Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) is an in vitro impedance measuring system to quantify the behavior of cells within adherent cell layers. …

## Simultaneous Electrical and Mechanical Stimulation to Enhance Cells’ Cardiomyogenic Potential

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in developed countries. Consequently, the demand for effective cardiac cell therapies has motivated …

## Assembly and Characterization of Biomolecular Memristors Consisting of Ion Channel-doped Lipid Membranes

The ability to recreate synaptic functionalities in synthetic circuit elements is essential for neuromorphic computing systems that seek to emulate the …