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Acquisition and Analysis of an ECG (electrocardiography) Signal

JoVE 10473

Source: Peiman Shahbeigi and Sina Shahbazmohamadi, Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut

An electrocardiograph is a graph recorded by electric potential changes occurring between electrodes placed on a patient's torso to demonstrate cardiac activity. An ECG signal tracks heart rhythm and many cardiac diseases, such as poor blood flow to the heart and structural abnormalities. The action potential created by contractions of the heart wall spreads electrical currents from the heart throughout the body. The spreading electrical currents create different potentials at points in the body, which can be sensed by electrodes placed on the skin. The electrodes are biological transducers made of metals and salts. In practice, 10 electrodes are attached to different points on the body. There is a standard procedure for acquiring and analyzing ECG signals. A typical ECG wave of a healthy individual is as follows: Figure 1. ECG wave. The "P" wave corresponds to atrial contraction, and the "QRS" complex to the contraction of the ventricles. The "QRS' complex is much larger than the "P" wave due


 Biomedical Engineering

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

JoVE 10474

Source: Faisal Alamgir, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a technique that measures the elemental composition, empirical formula, chemical state and electronic state of the elements that exist within a material. XPS spectra are obtained by irradiating a material with a beam of X-rays while simultaneously measuring the kinetic energy and number of electrons that escape from the top several nanometers of the material being analyzed (within ~ the top 10 nm, for typical kinetic energies of the electrons). Due to the fact that the signal electrons escape predominantly from within the first few nanometers of the material, XPS is considered a surface analytical technique. The discovery and the application of the physical principles behind XPS or, as it was known earlier, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), led to two Nobel prizes in physics. The first was awarded in 1921 to Albert Einstein for his explanation of the photoelectric effect in 1905. The photoelectric effect underpins the process by which signal is generated in XPS. Much later, Kai Siegbahn developed ESCA based on some of the early works by Innes, Moseley, Rawlinson and Robinson, and recorded, in 1954, the first high-ener


 Materials Engineering

Propulsion and Thrust

JoVE 10398

Source: Alexander S Rattner; Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

Aircraft, rockets, and ships produce propulsion by accelerating surrounding fluid or high temperature combustion products to high velocity. Because of the principle of conservation of momentum, the increased fluid velocity results in an effective thrust force on the vehicle. The thrust capabilities of propulsion systems are often measured with static thrust tests. In these tests, propulsion systems are mounted and operated on fixed, instrumented platforms, and the holding force on the mounts is measured as the thrust In this experiment, a small-scale static thrust measurement facility will be constructed and modeled. The thrust curves for two model aircraft motors and propeller systems and a computer cooling fan will be measured. Thrust efficiencies will also be evaluated (thrust force / electrical power input). Measured thrust values will be compared with theoretical predictions based on measured air velocities.


 Mechanical Engineering

Piping Networks and Pressure Losses

JoVE 10389

Source: Alexander S Rattner, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

This experiment introduces the measurement and modeling of pressure losses in piping networks and internal flow systems. In such systems, frictional flow resistance from channel walls, fittings, and obstructions causes mechanical energy in the form of fluid pressure to be converted to heat. Engineering analyses are needed to size flow hardware to ensure acceptable frictional pressure losses and select pumps that meet pressure drop requirements. In this experiment, a piping network is constructed with common flow features: straight lengths of tubing, helical tube coils, and elbow fittings (sharp 90° bends). Pressure loss measurements are collected across each set of components using manometers - simple devices that measure fluid pressure by the liquid level in an open vertical column. Resulting pressure loss curves are compared with predictions from internal flow models.


 Mechanical Engineering

Stability of Floating Vessels

JoVE 10374

Source: Alexander S Rattner and Kevin Rao Li Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

The objective of this experiment is to demonstrate the phenomenon of stability of floating vessels - the ability to self-right when rolled over to the side by some external force. Careful design of hull shapes and internal mass distribution enables seagoing vessels to be stable with low drafts (submerged depth of hull), improving vessel maneuverability and reducing drag. In this experiment, a model boat will first be modified to enable adjustment of its center of mass (representing different cargo loadings) and automated tracking of its roll angle. The boat will be placed in a container of water, and tipped to different angles with varying heights of its center of mass. Once released, the capsizing (tipping over) or oscillating motion of the boat will be tracked with a digital camera and video analysis software. Results for the maximum stable roll angle and frequency of oscillation will be compared with theoretical values. Stability calculations will be performed using geometric and structural properties of the boat determined in a computer aided design environment.


 Mechanical Engineering

Introduction to Refrigeration

JoVE 10387

Source: Alexander S Rattner and Christopher J Greer; Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

This experiment demonstrates the principles of vapor compression refrigeration. The vapor compression cycle is the dominant refrigeration technology, found in most refrigerators, freezers, air-conditioning systems, and heat pumps. In this cycle, cooling (heat acquisition) is achieved with low-pressure evaporation of refrigerant. Thermal energy absorbed in evaporation is rejected to the surroundings through high-pressure refrigerant condensation. Mechanical work is applied in the compressor to raise the working fluid from low to high pressure. While refrigeration technology is ubiquitous, the concealing packaging and autonomous operation of most refrigerators makes it difficult to appreciate the operating principles and function of key components. In this experiment, a rudimentary vapor compression refrigerator is constructed. The compressor is manually actuated with a bicycle pump, allowing intuitive appreciation of cycle operation as the experimenter becomes part of the system. Resulting component pressures and temperatures can be interpreted in terms of the thermodynamic T-s and P-h diagrams, which captu


 Mechanical Engineering

Heat Exchanger Analysis

JoVE 10391

Source: Alexander S Rattner and Christopher J Greer; Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

Heat exchangers transfer thermal energy between two fluid streams, and are ubiquitous in energy systems. Common applications include car radiators (heat transfer from hot engine coolant to surrounding air), refrigerator evaporators (air inside refrigerator compartment to evaporating refrigerant), and cooling towers in power plants (condensing steam to evaporating water and ambient air). The objective of this experiment is to introduce experimental measurement (rating) and modeling procedures for heat exchangers. In this experiment, a water-to-water tube-in-tube heat exchanger will be constructed, and evaluated. Temperature and flow rate measurements will be employed to determine the heat transfer rate (Q) and overall conductance (UA). The measured heat exchanger UA will be compared with predicted values for the geometry and operating conditions.


 Mechanical Engineering

Aggregates for Concrete and Asphaltic Mixes

JoVE 10419

Source: Roberto Leon, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA

Concrete and asphalt are by far the most common construction materials used today. Concrete is a composite material consisting of cement, water, air, coarse aggregate, and fine aggregates. Fine aggregates are typically sands and coarse aggregates are natural or crushed rocks. Chemical admixtures to modify certain specific properties are also commonly used (i.e., superplasticizers to make the concrete fluid during casting). Asphaltic mixes consist primarily of asphalts, coarse aggregates, and fine aggregates, in addition to a number of emulsifiers and other additives used to improve viscosity during placement. In both concrete and asphaltic mixes, aggregates make up a very significant portion of the mix volume, as economy requires that the amount of cement and asphalt be minimized. Two types of aggregates are commonly recognized: coarse aggregates, defined as particles larger than about 4.75mm (rocks), and fine aggregates, consisting of smaller particles (sands). Other important characteristics of aggregates are that they be rigid, durable, and chemically inert with respect to the concrete mortar or asphalt. Aggregates are intended to be fillers, but they are not intended to play a key rol


 Structural Engineering

Crystallization of Salicylic Acid via Chemical Modification

JoVE 10407

Source: Kerry M. Dooley and Michael G. Benton, Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA

Processing of biochemicals involves unit operations such as crystallization, ultracentrifugation, membrane filtration, and preparative chromatography, all of which have in common the need to separate large from small molecules, or solid from liquid. Of these, crystallization is the most important from a tonnage standpoint. For that reason, it is commonly employed in the pharmaceutical, chemical and food processing industries. Important biochemical examples include chiral separations,1 purification of antibiotics,2 separation of amino acids from precursors,3 and many other pharmaceutical,4-5 food additive,6-7 and agrochemical purifications.8 The control of crystal morphology and size distribution is critical to process economics, as these factors affect the costs of downstream processing operations such as drying, filtration, and solids conveying. For more information about crystallization, consult a specialized textbook or a Unit Operations textbook.9 The crystallizer unit (Figure 1) enables study of: (a)


 Chemical Engineering

Determination of Impingement Forces on a Flat Plate with the Control Volume Method

JoVE 10444

Source: Ricardo Mejia-Alvarez and Hussam Hikmat Jabbar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI

The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate forces on bodies as the result of changes in the linear momentum of the flow around them using a control volume formulation [1, 2]. The control volume analysis focuses on the macroscopic effect of flow on engineering systems, rather than the detailed description that could be achieved with a differential analysis. Each one of these two techniques have a place in the toolbox of an engineering analyst, and they should be considered complementary rather than competing approaches. Broadly speaking, control volume analysis will give the engineer an idea of the dominant loads in a system. This will give her/him an initial feeling about what route to pursue when designing devices or structures, and should ideally be the initial step to take before pursuing any detailed design or analysis via differential formulation. The main principle behind the control volume formulation is to replace the details of a system exposed to a fluid flow by a simplified free body diagram defined by an imaginary closed surface dubbed the control volume. This diagram should contain all surface and body forces, the net flux of linear momentum t


 Mechanical Engineering

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