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Assembly of a Reflux System for Heated Chemical Reactions

JoVE 5516

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Philip Miller — Imperial College London


Many chemical experiments require elevated temperatures before any reaction is observed, however heating solutions of reactants can lead to loss of reactants and/or solvent via evaporation if their boiling points are sufficiently low. In order to ensure no loss of…


 Organic Chemistry

Cyclic Voltammetry (CV)

JoVE 5502

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Kayla Green — Texas Christian University


A Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) experiment involves the scan of a range of potential voltages while measuring current. In the CV experiment, the potential of an immersed, stationary electrode is scanned from a predetermined starting potential to a final value (called the…


 Analytical Chemistry

Rotary Evaporation to Remove Solvent

JoVE 5501

Source: Dr. Melanie Pribisko Yen and Grace Tang — California Institute of Technology


Rotary evaporation is a technique most commonly used in organic chemistry to remove a solvent from a higher-boiling point compound of interest. The rotary evaporator, or "rotovap", was invented in 1950 by the chemist Lyman C. Craig. The…


 Organic Chemistry

Using a pH Meter

JoVE 5500

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Zhongqi He - United States Department of Agriculture


Acids and bases are substances capable of donating protons (H+) and hydroxide ions (OH-), respectively. They are two extremes that describe chemicals. Mixing acids and bases can cancel out or neutralize their extreme effects. A substance that is neither acidic…


 General Chemistry

Performing 1D Thin Layer Chromatography

JoVE 5499

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Yuri Bolshan — University of Ontario Institute of Technology


Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is a chromatographic method used to separate mixtures of non-volatile compounds. A TLC plate consists of a thin layer of adsorbent material (the stationary phase) fixed to an appropriate solid support such as…


 Organic Chemistry

X-ray Fluorescence (XRF)

JoVE 5498

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Lydia Finney — Argonne National Laboratory


X-ray fluorescence is an induced, emitted radiation that can be used to generate spectroscopic information. X-ray fluorescence microscopy is a non-destructive imaging technique that uses the induced fluorescence emission of metals to identify and quantify their…


 Analytical Chemistry

Anxiety Testing

JoVE 5430

Anxiety is a commonly observed behavioral disorder that stems from fear. It is described as increased restlessness, or unpleasant feelings of fear over anticipated events. Experimenters often use rodent models to better understand anxiety disorders in humans. They use different paradigms, like exposing rodents to bright spaces or loud sounds, which are known to induce fear. These tests…


 Behavioral Science

Modeling Social Stress

JoVE 5429

Stress negatively affects our quality of life. In particular, some individuals experience social stress when placed in a social environment that they are unfamiliar with or have difficulty adjusting to. Since it is hard to examine mechanisms of social stress in humans, modeling this condition in animals may help scientist in developing new therapies for treating this commonly encountered…


 Behavioral Science

An Introduction to Modeling Behavioral Disorders and Stress

JoVE 5428

Recently, it has been discovered that behavioral conditions such as, depression, anxiety and stress-response have a neurological basis. Understanding the biological underpinnings of these conditions may help scientists in developing more effective therapies to treat these disorders. Typically, rodent models are used in this field and behavioral scientists create these models using…


 Behavioral Science

Self-administration Studies

JoVE 5427

Behavioral reinforcement induced by the rewarding feelings following substance use sometimes leads to addiction, which is demonstrated by increased self-administration. Drug self-administration studies in rodents model human behavior during drug abuse. These models are useful in understanding the neurobiological behavior of addiction in order to help scientists discover new treatments for…


 Behavioral Science

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