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# Chapter 5 Measures of Relative Standing

## Review and Preview

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In statistics, several tools are used to interpret the data. Measures of central tendency represent the characteristics of the data, such as mean,…

## Introduction to z Scores

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A z score (or standardized value) is measured in units of the standard deviation. It tells you how many standard deviations the value x is above (to…

## z Scores and Unusual Values

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The z score is one of the three measures of relative standing. It describes the location of a value in a dataset relative to the mean. z scores are…

## Percentile

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A percentile indicates the relative standing of a data value when data are sorted into numerical order from smallest to largest. It represents the…

## Quartile

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Quartiles are numbers that separate the data into quarters. Quartiles may or may not be part of the data. To find the quartiles, first, find the…

## 5-Number Summary

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In a dataset, the 5-number summary includes the minimum data value, the data value of the first quartile, the median data value or data value of the…

## Boxplot

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Box plots (also called box-and-whisker plots or box-whisker plots) give an excellent graphical image of the concentration of the data. They also show…

## What Are Outliers?

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Outliers are observed data points that are far from the least squares line. They have unusual values and need to be examined carefully. Though an…

## Modified Boxplots

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A standard box and whisker plot informs us about the spread of the data in a given sample. One can identify the minimum value, maximum value, first…

## Resolving Water, Proteins, and Lipids from In Vivo Confocal Raman Spectra of Stratum Corneum through a Chemometric Approach

Development of this in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopic method enables the direct measurement of water, proteins, and lipids with depth resolution…

## Scanning Skeletal Remains for Bone Mineral Density in Forensic Contexts

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a promising, novel method to aid in the assessment of bone quality in forensically relevant skeletal…

## A Simple Approach to Manipulate Dissolved Oxygen for Animal Behavior Observations

The ability to manipulate dissolved oxygen (DO) in a laboratory setting has significant application to investigate a number of ecological and…

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