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Abdominal Cavity: The region in the abdomen extending from the thoracic Diaphragm to the plane of the superior pelvic aperture (pelvic inlet). The abdominal cavity contains the Peritoneum and abdominal Viscera, as well as the extraperitoneal space which includes the Retroperitoneal space.

Abdominal Exam I: Inspection and Auscultation

JoVE 10088

Source: Alexander Goldfarb, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, MA


Gastrointestinal disease accounts for millions of office visits and hospital admissions annually. Physical examination of the abdomen is a crucial tool in diagnosing diseases of the gastrointestinal tract; in addition, it can help…

 Physical Examinations II

Abdominal Exam II: Percussion

JoVE 10090

Source: Alexander Goldfarb, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, MA


Medical percussion is based on the difference in pitch between the sounds elicited by tapping on the body wall. The auditory response to tapping depends on the ease with which the body wall vibrates, and is influenced by underlying…

 Physical Examinations II

Needle Thoracostomy

JoVE 10233

Source: Rachel Liu, BAO, MBBCh, Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA


A tension pneumothorax is a life-threatening situation in which excess air is introduced into the pleural space surrounding the lung, either through trauma to the chest cavity or as a spontaneous leak of air from the lung itself. Air…

 Emergency Medicine and Critical Care

Oogenesis

JoVE 10906

In human women, oogenesis produces one mature egg cell or ovum for every precursor cell that enters meiosis. This process differs in two unique ways from the equivalent procedure of spermatogenesis in males. First, meiotic divisions during oogenesis are asymmetric, meaning that a large oocyte (containing most of the cytoplasm) and minor polar body are produced as a result of meiosis I, and again following meiosis II. Since only oocytes will go on to form embryos if fertilized, this unequal distribution of cell contents ensures that there are enough cytoplasm and nutrients to nourish the early stages of development. Second, during oogenesis, meiosis “arrests” at two distinct points: once during embryonic growth and a second time during puberty. In mammals, oocytes are suspended in prophase I until sexual maturation, at which point meiosis I continues under hormonal influence until an egg precursor cell is released into a fallopian tube. At ovulation, the precursor exits the ovary and, only if fertilization occurs, is stimulated to complete meiosis II and form a complete egg. Defects during oogenesis can result in severe consequences. In particular, problems with chromosome segregation during either meiosis I or meiosis II may lead to an embryo being aneuploid, meaning that it contains an abnormal number of chromosomes. Increased age elevates a woman

 Core: Reproduction and Development

Diagnostic Necropsy and Tissue Harvest

JoVE 10294

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


Many animal experiments rely on final data collection time points that are gathered from the harvesting and testing of organs and tissues. The use of appropriate methods for the collection of organs and tissues can impact the quality of…

 Lab Animal Research

Sterile Tissue Harvest

JoVE 10298

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


In 1959 The 3 R's were introduced by W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch in their book The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. The 3 R's are replacement, reduction, and refinement of the use of animals in research.1 The …

 Lab Animal Research

Considerations for Rodent Surgery

JoVE 10285

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals1 dictates that rodent survival surgery be performed aseptically. Aseptic technique utilizes specific practices that minimize the contamination of the surgical site, including…

 Lab Animal Research

Murine In Utero Electroporation

JoVE 5208

In utero electroporation is an important technique for studying the molecular mechanisms that guide the proliferation, differentiation, migration, and maturation of cells during neural development. Electroporation enables the rapid and targeted delivery of material into cells by utilizing electrical pulses to create transient pores in cell membranes. Although…

 Neuroscience

Blood Withdrawal I

JoVE 10246

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


Blood collection is a common requirement for research studies that involve mice and rats. The method of blood withdrawal in mice and rats is dependent upon the volume of blood needed, the frequency of the sampling, the health status of the …

 Lab Animal Research

Anatomy of the Intestines

JoVE 10830

Although digestion of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids may begin in the stomach, it is completed in the intestine. The absorption of nutrients, water, and electrolytes from food and drink also occur in the intestine. The intestines can be divided into two structurally distinct organs—the small and large intestines.

The small intestine is an ~22 meter-long tube with an inner diameter of just 2.5 cm. Since most nutrients are absorbed here, the inner lining of the small intestine is highly convoluted and covered in finger-like extensions called villi, each containing hundreds of microvilli. The folds, villi, and microvilli of the small intestine amplify the surface area of absorption 60 to 120 times. The increased surface area provides ample opportunity for nutrients to be absorbed. The small intestine connects to the stomach by the pyloric sphincter, which closes off when chyme moves into the duodenum—the beginning of the small intestine. The middle and largest part of the small intestine is the jejunum. The ileum ends the small intestine, where it attaches to the large intestine by the ileocecal valve. The large intestine starts at the cecum. The appendix, a small lymphatic structure, dangles from the bottom of the cecum. Above the cecum, starts the ascending colon followed by the transverse colon. They absorb most of the remaining

 Core: Nutrition and Digestion

Cranial Nerves Exam II (VII-XII)

JoVE 10005

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA


The cranial nerve examination follows the mental status evaluation in a neurological exam. However, the examination begins with observations made upon greeting…

 Physical Examinations III

Biodegradable Magnesium Stent Treatment of Saccular Aneurysms in a Rat Model - Introduction of the Surgical Technique

1Department of Neurosurgery, Kantonsspital Aarau, 2Neuro Lab, Research Group for Experimental Neurosurgery and Neurocritical Care, Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital and University of Bern, 3Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Kantonsspital Aarau

JoVE 56359

 Neuroscience

In Vitro Recording of Mesenteric Afferent Nerve Activity in Mouse Jejunal and Colonic Segments

1Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Antwerp, 2Visceral Pain Group, Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, 3Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, 4Department of Pharmacy, Pharmacology and Postgraduate Medicine, University of Hertfordshire, 5Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Antwerp University Hospital

JoVE 54576

 Neuroscience

Analyzing Beneficial Effects of Nutritional Supplements on Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Functions During Experimental Colitis

1Department of Molecular Biomedicine, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, 2Department of Physiology, Biophysics and Neurosciences, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, 3Department of Infectomics and Molecular Pathogenesis, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute

JoVE 55095

 Medicine

Re-Arterialized Rat Partial Liver Transplantation with an in vivo Vessel-Oriented 70% Hepatectomy

1Department of Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, 2Reproductive Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, 3Department of Transplantation, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, 4Department of Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania

JoVE 56392

 Medicine

Evaluation of Zika Virus-specific T-cell Responses in Immunoprivileged Organs of Infected Ifnar1-/- Mice

1School of Laboratory Medicine and Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, 2NHC Key Laboratory of Medical Virology and Viral Diseases, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 3State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, 4Research Network of Immunity and Health (RNIH), Beijing Institutes of Life Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5Laboratory Animal Center, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 6CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences

JoVE 58110

 Immunology and Infection

Invasive Hemodynamic Characterization of the Portal-hypertensive Syndrome in Cirrhotic Rats

1Div. of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Dept. of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2Vienna Hepatic Hemodynamic Laboratory, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 3Center of Biomedical Research, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

JoVE 57261

 Medicine

Advanced Animal Model of Colorectal Metastasis in Liver: Imaging Techniques and Properties of Metastatic Clones

1Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago, 2Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology and Ludwig Center for Metastasis Research, The University of Chicago

JoVE 54657

 Cancer Research

A Novel Surgical Approach for Intratracheal Administration of Bioactive Agents in a Fetal Mouse Model

1Molecular Virology and Gene Therapy, KU Leuven, 2Department of Woman and Child, KU Leuven, 3Neurobiology and Gene Therapy, KU Leuven, 4Division of Nuclear Medicine, KU Leuven, 5Biomedical NMR Unit/ MoSAIC, KU Leuven

JoVE 4219

 Medicine

A Novel Strategy Combining Array-CGH, Whole-exome Sequencing and In Utero Electroporation in Rodents to Identify Causative Genes for Brain Malformations

1University of Florence, 2INSERM INMED, 3Aix-Marseille University, 4Plateforme Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire INMED, 5Royal Children's Hospital, 6Murdoch Children's Research Institute, 7University of Melbourne, 8Plateforme postgenomique INMED, 9University of Pavia, 10Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, 11Oxford Radcliffe NHS Trust, 12IRCCS Casimiro Mondino Foundation, 13Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, 14IRCCS Stella Maris, 15Columbia University

JoVE 53570

 Neuroscience

Quantitative Analysis of Cellular Composition in Advanced Atherosclerotic Lesions of Smooth Muscle Cell Lineage-Tracing Mice

1Heart, Lung, Blood and Vascular Medicine Institute, University of Pittsburgh, 2Robert M. Berne Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Virginia, 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Virginia, 4Division of Cardiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

JoVE 59139

 Medicine
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