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Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region; generally associated with functional disorders, tissue injuries, or diseases.

Abdominal Exam IV: Acute Abdominal Pain Assessment

JoVE 10120

Source: Joseph Donroe, MD, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

Abdominal pain is a frequent presenting concern in both the emergency department and the office setting. Acute abdominal pain is defined as pain lasting less than seven days, while an acute abdomen refers to the abrupt onset of severe abdominal pain with features suggesting a surgically intervenable process. The differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain is broad; thus, clinicians must have a systematic method of examination guided by a careful history, remembering that pathology outside of the abdomen can also cause abdominal pain, including pulmonary, cardiac, rectal, and genital disorders. Terminology for describing the location of abdominal tenderness includes the right and left upper and lower quadrants, and the epigastric, umbilical, and hypogastric regions (Figures 1, 2). Thorough examination requires an organized approach involving inspection, auscultation, percussion, and palpation, with each maneuver performed purposefully and with a clear mental representation of the anatomy. Rather than palpating randomly across the abdomen, begin palpating remotely from the site of tenderness, moving systematically toward the tender region, and thi


 Physical Examinations II

In Vitro Recording of Mesenteric Afferent Nerve Activity in Mouse Jejunal and Colonic Segments

1Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Antwerp, 2Visceral Pain Group, Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, 3Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, 4Department of Pharmacy, Pharmacology and Postgraduate Medicine, University of Hertfordshire, 5Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Antwerp University Hospital

JoVE 54576


 Neuroscience

Abdominal Exam III: Palpation

JoVE 10089

Source: Alexander Goldfarb, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, MA

Abdominal palpation, if performed correctly, allows for examination of the large and relatively superficial organs; for a skilled examiner, it allows for assessment of the smaller and deeper structures as well. The amount of information that can be obtained by palpation of the abdominal area also depends on the anatomical characteristics of the patient. For example, obesity might make palpation of internal organs difficult and require that additional maneuvers be performed. Abdominal palpation provides valuable information regarding localization of the problem and its severity, as abdominal palpation identifies the areas of tenderness as well as presence of organomegaly and tumors. The specific focus of palpation is driven by the information collected during history taking and other elements of the abdominal exam. Palpation helps to integrate this information and develop the strategy for subsequent diagnostic steps.


 Physical Examinations II

Abdominal Exam I: Inspection and Auscultation

JoVE 10088

Source: Alexander Goldfarb, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, MA

Gastrointestinal disease accounts for millions of office visits and hospital admissions annually. Physical examination of the abdomen is a crucial tool in diagnosing diseases of the gastrointestinal tract; in addition, it can help identify pathological processes in cardiovascular, urinary, and other systems. As physical examination in general, the examination of the abdominal region is important for establishing physician-patient contact, for reaching the preliminary diagnosis and selecting subsequent laboratory and imaging tests, and determining the urgency of care. As with the other parts of a physical examination, visual inspection and auscultation of the abdomen are done in a systematic fashion so that no potential findings are missed. Special attention should be paid to potential problems already identified by the patient's history. Here we assume that the patient has already been identified, and has had history taken, symptoms discussed, and areas of potential concern identified. In this video we will not review the patient's history; instead, we will go directly to the physical examination. Before we get to the examination, let's briefly review s


 Physical Examinations II

A Technique for Subcutaneous Abdominal Adipose Tissue Biopsy via a Non-diathermy Method

1FAME Laboratory, Department of Exercise Science, University of Thessaly, 2Institute of Sport, Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, 3Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, 4School of Physical Education and Exercise Science, University of Thessaly

JoVE 55593


 Medicine

Ovine Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Degeneration Model Utilizing a Lateral Retroperitoneal Drill Bit Injury

1Department of Surgery, Monash University, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Monash University, 3The Ritchie Centre, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, 4Proteobioactives, Pty Ltd, 5Department of Neurosurgery, St Vincent's Hospital, 6Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, University of Queensland, 7School of Chemical Engineering, University of Queensland, 8Department of Neurosurgery, Monash Health

JoVE 55753


 Medicine

Diagnostic Necropsy and Tissue Harvest

JoVE 10294

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

Many animal experiments rely on final data collection time points that are gathered from the harvesting and testing of organs and tissues. The use of appropriate methods for the collection of organs and tissues can impact the quality of the samples and the analysis of the data that is gleaned for the testing of the tissues. The method of euthanasia of the animal can also impact the quality of the samples. This manuscript will outline proper necropsy techniques for rats.


 Lab Animal Research

Perturbations of Circulating miRNAs in Irritable Bowel Syndrome Detected Using a Multiplexed High-throughput Gene Expression Platform

1Digestive Disorders Unit, National Institute of Nursing Research, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, 2National Institutes of Health Research Scholar, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 3Internal Medicine, Medical School, University of Michigan

JoVE 54693


 Genetics

Semiautomated Longitudinal Microcomputed Tomography-based Quantitative Structural Analysis of a Nude Rat Osteoporosis-related Vertebral Fracture Model

1Skeletal Biotech Laboratory, Hebrew University-Hadassah Faculty of Dental Medicine, 2Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 3Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 4Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 5Department of Orthopedics, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

JoVE 55928


 Bioengineering

Intraoperative Detection of Subtle Endometriosis: A Novel Paradigm for Detection and Treatment of Pelvic Pain Associated with the Loss of Peritoneal Integrity

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Greenville Hospital System, 2Department of Pathology, Duke University Health System, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Duke University

JoVE 4313


 Medicine

A Model of Cardiac Remodeling Through Constriction of the Abdominal Aorta in Rats

1Graduate Institute of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Mackay Memorial Hospital, 3Mackay Medicine, Nursing and Management College, 4School of Medicine, National Taiwan University, 5Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hosptial

JoVE 54818


 Medicine

Bile Duct Ligation in Mice: Induction of Inflammatory Liver Injury and Fibrosis by Obstructive Cholestasis

1Institute of Molecular Pathobiochemistry, Experimental Gene Therapy and Clinical Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, 2Institute for Laboratory Animal Science and Experimental Surgery, RWTH Aachen University, 3Department of Medicine III, RWTH Aachen University

JoVE 52438


 Medicine

Adapted Resistance Training Improves Strength in Eight Weeks in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

1Motion Analysis Laboratory, Kennedy Krieger Institute, 2Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 4Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

JoVE 53449


 Medicine

Techniques of Sleeve Gastrectomy and Modified Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass in Mice

1l'Institut du Thorax, INSERM, CNRS, UNIV Nantes, 2CHU Nantes, Institut des Maladies de l'Appareil Digestif, INSERM U913, 3l'Institut du Thorax, INSERM, CNRS, UNIV Nantes, CHU Nantes, 4Service de Clinique Chirurgicale Digestive et Endocrinienne, CHU de Nantes

JoVE 54905


 Medicine

A Mouse Tumor Model of Surgical Stress to Explore the Mechanisms of Postoperative Immunosuppression and Evaluate Novel Perioperative Immunotherapies

1Centre for Innovative Cancer Research, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, 2Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, 3Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, 4Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, 5Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, University of Tabuk, 6Department of Surgery, Ottawa General Hospital

JoVE 51253


 Medicine

A New Murine Model of Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair

1INSERM U698 Cardiovascular Remodelling, Hôpital X. Bichat, AP-HP, Paris, 2Bio-Ingénierie des Polymères Cardiovasculaires (BPC), Institut Galilée - Université Paris 13, Paris, France, 3Service de Chirurgie Vasculaire, Hôpital Henri Mondor, AP-HP, Université Paris-Est Creteil, 4Ecole de chirurgie de l'assistance publique des hôpitaux de Paris, 5Service de Chirurgie Cardiaque et Vasculaire, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, AP-HP, Université René Descartes

JoVE 50740


 Medicine

Cystometric and External Urethral Sphincter Measurements in Awake Rats with Implanted Catheter and Electrodes Allowing for Repeated Measurements

1Department of Urology, Spinal Cord Injury and Tissue Regeneration Center Salzburg, Paracelsus Medical University, 2Institute of Molecular Regenerative Medicine, Spinal Cord Injury and Tissue Regeneration Center Salzburg, Paracelsus Medical University, 3Brain Research Institute, University of Zürich, 4Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, 5Neuro-Urology, Spinal Cord Injury Center & Research, University of Zürich, Balgrist University Hospital, 6Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital, 7Department of Urology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56506


 JoVE In-Press

Male Rectal Exam

JoVE 10102

Source: Joseph Donroe, MD, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

While its usefulness in cancer screening is debated, the male rectal examination remains an important part of the physical exam. The exam is indicated in selected patients with lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary and/or fecal incontinence or retention, back pain, anorectal symptoms, abdominal complaints, trauma patients, unexplained anemia, weight loss, or bone pain. There are no absolute contraindications to the rectal exam; however, relative contraindications include patient unwillingness to undergo the exam, severe rectal pain, recent anorectal surgery or trauma, and neutropenia. When performing the rectal exam, the examiner should conceptualize the relevant anatomy. The external anal sphincter is the most distal part of the anal canal, which extends three to four centimeters before transitioning into the rectum. The prostate gland lies anterior to the rectum, just beyond the anal canal. The posterior surface of the prostate, including its apex, base, lateral lobes, and median sulcus, can be palpated through the rectal wall (Figure 1). The normal consistency of the prostate is similar to the thenar eminence when the hand is in a tight fist. The thumb knuckle is representativ


 Physical Examinations II

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