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Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.

Preparing and Administering Inhaled Medications

JoVE 10390

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

Inhaled medications are prescribed for conditions affecting the bronchi, which branch off of the trachea, and bronchioles, which are progressively smaller conducting airways spread throughout the lung tissue. These conditions can be classified as acute (i.e., temporary, with quick onset) or chronic (i.e., persistent and/or recurrent symptoms lasting months to years). Common acute conditions requiring inhaled medications include acute bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, pulmonary edema, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Chronic conditions requiring inhaled medications encompass those classified as COPD (i.e., asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema), as well as other chronic conditions, including cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, and pneumoconiosis. These conditions often require medications to open airways, decrease airway inflammation, and promote airflow. The delivery of medications directly into the airways allows for a faster response when compared to systemically administered medications and decreases the impact of systemic side effects. Inhaled medications come in different forms and delivery devices. Common inhaled medications include short- and


 Nursing Skills

Compound Administration III

JoVE 10215

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

There are many commonly used routes for compound administration in laboratory mice and rats. However, certain protocols may require the use of less commonly used routes, including intradermal, intranasal, and intracranial injections. Specialized training is essential for these procedures to be performed successfully. Justification for these routes may need to be provided to gain Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) approval.


 Lab Animal Research

Emergency Eyewash and Shower Stations

JoVE 10373

Robert M. Rioux, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) mandates that an emergency eyewash and shower station be easily accessible in all workplaces in which a person could be exposed to injurious and/or corrosive substances. Emergency eyewash and shower stations should be used in the case of a laboratory or workplace accident that involves the spilling of a harmful, possibly corrosive chemical onto the body or the splashing of such a chemical into the eyes. Eyewash and shower stations are not, however, a replacement for proper protective equipment (PPE), including laboratory coats and protective eyewear, which should always be worn when handling hazardous chemicals. For proper selection of PPE, refer to your organization's Environmental Health & Safety (EHS) office.


 Lab Safety

Anesthesia Induction and Maintenance

JoVE 10263

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals ("The Guide") states that pain assessment and alleviation are integral components of the veterinary care of laboratory animals.1 The definition of anesthesia is the loss of feeling or sensation. It is a dynamic event involving changes in anesthetic depth with respect to an animal's metabolism, surgical stimulation, or variations in the external environment.


 Lab Animal Research

Blood Withdrawal I

JoVE 10246

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

Blood collection is a common requirement for research studies that involve mice and rats. The method of blood withdrawal in mice and rats is dependent upon the volume of blood needed, the frequency of the sampling, the health status of the animal to be bled, and the skill level of the technician.1 All methods discussed-retro-orbital sinus bleeds, initial tail snip bleeds, and intracardiac bleeds-require the use of a general anesthesia.


 Lab Animal Research

Rodent Handling and Restraint Techniques

JoVE 10221

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN 

It has been demonstrated that even minimal handling of mice and rats is stressful to the animals. Handling for cage changing and other noninvasive procedures causes an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, and other physiological parameters, such as serum corticosterone levels. Fluctuations can continue for up to several hours. The methods of restraint required for injections and blood withdrawals also cause physiological changes that can potentially affect scientific data. Training in the proper handling of mice and rats is required to minimize the effects to the animals.1 Mice and rats can be restrained manually with restraint devices, or with chemical agents. Manual methods and the use of restraint devices are covered in this manuscript. All restraint methods include the process of lifting the animals from their home cage.


 Lab Animal Research

Recording Brain Electromagnetic Activity During the Administration of the Gaseous Anesthetic Agents Xenon and Nitrous Oxide in Healthy Volunteers

1Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University of Technology, 2Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Management, St. Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, 3Brain and Psychological Science Research Centre, Swinburne University of Technology, 4Department of Anaesthesiology, University of Auckland

JoVE 56881


 Neuroscience

Automatic Detection of Highly Organized Theta Oscillations in the Murine EEG

1Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Cologne, 2Department of Neuropsychopharmacology, Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices, 3Molecular and Cellular Cognition Lab, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, 4Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices

JoVE 55089


 Behavior

Invasive Hemodynamic Characterization of the Portal-hypertensive Syndrome in Cirrhotic Rats

1Div. of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Dept. of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2Vienna Hepatic Hemodynamic Laboratory, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 3Center of Biomedical Research, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

JoVE 57261


 Medicine

A Novel Surgical Approach for Intratracheal Administration of Bioactive Agents in a Fetal Mouse Model

1Molecular Virology and Gene Therapy, KU Leuven, 2Department of Woman and Child, KU Leuven, 3Neurobiology and Gene Therapy, KU Leuven, 4Division of Nuclear Medicine, KU Leuven, 5Biomedical NMR Unit/ MoSAIC, KU Leuven

JoVE 4219


 Medicine

Imaging Cell Interaction in Tracheal Mucosa During Influenza Virus Infection Using Two-photon Intravital Microscopy

1Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Università della Svizzera italiana (USI), 2Graduate School of Cellular and Molecular Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Bern, 3Institute of Computational Science, Università della Svizzera italiana (USI)

JoVE 58355


 Immunology and Infection

Non-restraining EEG Radiotelemetry: Epidural and Deep Intracerebral Stereotaxic EEG Electrode Placement

1Department of Neuropsychopharmacology, Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (Bundesinstitut für Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte, BfArM), 2Molecular and Cellular Cognition Lab, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (Deutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen, DZNE)

JoVE 54216


 Neuroscience

Computed Tomography and Optical Imaging of Osteogenesis-angiogenesis Coupling to Assess Integration of Cranial Bone Autografts and Allografts

1Skeletal Biotech Laboratory, The Hebrew University–Hadassah Faculty of Dental Medicine, 2Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 3Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 4Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

JoVE 53459


 Bioengineering

Combined Near-infrared Fluorescent Imaging and Micro-computed Tomography for Directly Visualizing Cerebral Thromboemboli

1Molecular Imaging and Neurovascular Research Laboratory, Dongguk University College of Medicine, 2Biomedical Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 3Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, 4Departments of Radiology and Cancer Systems Imaging, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center

JoVE 54294


 Medicine

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the Dorsal Skin of Hamsters: a Useful Model for the Screening of Antileishmanial Drugs

1Program for the Study and Control of Tropical Diseases -PECET-School of Medicine, University of Antioquia, 2School of Agrarian Sciences, University of Antioquia

JoVE 3533


 Immunology and Infection

A Comparative Study of Drug Delivery Methods Targeted to the Mouse Inner Ear: Bullostomy Versus Transtympanic Injection

1Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas (IIBm) Alberto Sols CSIC-UAM, 2Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 3Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria La Paz (IdiPAZ), 4Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 5Departmento de Otorrino laringología, Hospital Universitario La Paz

JoVE 54951


 Biology

Using Robotic Systems to Process and Embed Colonic Murine Samples for Histological Analyses

1Pathology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda, Ospedale Policlinico di Milano, 2Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, 3Gastroenterology and Endoscopy Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 4Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58654


 JoVE In-Press

Immunostimulatory Agent Evaluation: Lymphoid Tissue Extraction and Injection Route-Dependent Dendritic Cell Activation

1Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 2Department of Medical Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, 3Department of Chemistry, Pukyong National University, 4Marine-integrated Bionics Research Center, Pukyong National University, 5Department of Biochemistry, Chungbuk National University, 6Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center

JoVE 57640


 Immunology and Infection

Comprehensive Evaluation of the Effectiveness and Safety of Placenta-Targeted Drug Delivery Using Three Complementary Methods

1Laboratory for Reproductive Health, Institute of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, 3Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering Process and Technology for High-efficiency Conversion, College of Chemistry and Material Sciences, Heilongjiang University, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University School of Medicine

JoVE 58219


 Bioengineering

Generation of Electronic Cigarette Aerosol by a Third-Generation Machine-Vaping Device: Application to Toxicological Studies

1Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, 2Department of Environmental Sciences, College of the Coast & Environment, Louisiana State University, 3SCIREQ Scientific Respiratory Equipment Inc.

JoVE 58095


 Chemistry

Rat Model of Widespread Cerebral Cortical Demyelination Induced by an Intracerebral Injection of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines

1Research Unit of Experimental Neurotraumatology, Institute of Neurosurgery, Medical University Graz, 2Department of Neurology, Medical University Graz, 3Centre for Molecular Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 4Centre for Molecular Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 57879


 JoVE In-Press

A Small Animal Model of Ex Vivo Normothermic Liver Perfusion

1Collaboration for Organ Perfusion, Protection, Engineering and Regeneration (COPPER) Lab, Division of Transplant, Department of Surgery, Comprehensive Transplant Center, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 2Department of Surgery, Division of Transplant, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 3Department of Surgery, Division of CardioThoracic Surgery, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 4Department of Medicine, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center

JoVE 57541


 Medicine

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