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Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.

Compound Administration III

JoVE 10215

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

There are many commonly used routes for compound administration in laboratory mice and rats. However, certain protocols may require the use of less commonly used routes, including intradermal, intranasal, and intracranial injections. Specialized training is essential for these procedures to be performed successfully. Justification for these routes may need to be provided to gain Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) approval.


 Lab Animal Research

Compound Administration I

JoVE 10198

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

As many research protocols require that a substance be injected into an animal, the route of delivery and the amount of the substance must be accurately determined. There are several routes of administration available in the mouse and rat. Which route to use is determined by several factors of the substance to be injected: the pH of the solution, the volume required for the desired dosage, and the viscosity of the solution. Severe tissue damage can occur if a substance is administered incorrectly. This video looks at the various restraint methods and technical details for the most commonly used injection routes.


 Lab Animal Research

Compound Administration IV

JoVE 10214

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

There are many commonly used routes for compound administration in laboratory mice and rats. Protocols may, however, require the use of the less commonly used routes: intracardiac, footpad, and retro-orbital injections. Specialized training is essential for these procedures to be performed successfully. Justification for these routes may need to be provided to gain Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) approval.


 Lab Animal Research

In vivo Imaging of Optic Nerve Fiber Integrity by Contrast-Enhanced MRI in Mice

1Hans Berger Department of Neurology, Jena University Hospital, 2Immunology, Leibniz Institute for Age Research, Fritz Lipmann Institute, Jena, 3Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Medical Physics Group, Jena University Hospital

JoVE 51274


 Neuroscience

Introducing Experimental Agents into the Mouse

JoVE 5161

Many investigations performed in mice (Mus musculus) require the administration of an experimental agent to the animal. For example, it may be of interest to test the efficacy of a specific therapy, to induce a pathologic condition, or to administer anesthesia or palliative care. In order to ensure safe and efficient delivery, it is important to consider a variety of factors prior to the administration of the treatment. This video, which reviews agent administration in the mouse, begins by highlighting properties to consider, such as viscosity, dose, and palatability, when planning the administration of an experimental agent. The subsequent discussion focuses on injection methods, including delineation of the structural components of the syringe and needle, how to interpret needle gauge, and safe mouse restraint methods for common injection sites. Detailed instructions are provided for performing subcutaneous (SC/SubQ), intraperitoneal (IP), and tail vein (IV) injections in mice. Furthermore, applications of these techniques as well as alternative administration routes are discussed.


 Biology II

Non-surgical Intratracheal Instillation of Mice with Analysis of Lungs and Lung Draining Lymph Nodes by Flow Cytometry

1Department of Immunology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 2Division of Cell Biology, Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Health, 3Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, 4Department of Immunology, National Jewish Health

JoVE 2702


 Immunology and Infection

Early Viral Entry Assays for the Identification and Evaluation of Antiviral Compounds

1Department of Chinese Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 4Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, 5Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 6Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University

JoVE 53124


 Immunology and Infection

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Safety Checks and Five Rights of Medication Administration

JoVE 10235

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

According to the 1999 Institution of Medicine (IOM) report titled To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System, medication errors are significant contributors to avoidable patient deaths in the hospital environment. Therefore, to maintain patient safety and to avoid medication errors, it is important that every nurse adheres to at least five "rights" of safe medication administration. These five "rights" refer to the right patient, right medication, right medication dose, right time of administration, and right route of administration. The nurse should check for these five "rights" at three different checkpoints points in the mediation administration process: 1) while comparing the Medication Administration Record (MAR) when withdrawing medications, 2) while comparing the MAR to acquired medications, and 3) while comparing the MAR to both the medication and patient identifiers at the bedside. This video will demonstrate the acquisition component of medication administration, which consists of performing the five "rights" during the first, second, and third checkpoints. Prior to acquiring medications from a medication dispensing system (M


 Nursing Skills

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Preparing and Administering Enteric Tube Medications

JoVE 10287

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

An enteric tube is a tube that is inserted and passed into the stomach or intestines. Enteric tubes serve multiple purposes, including stomach decompression (through the removal of air, gastric contents, and secretions), enteric feeding, and/or the administration of medications or oral contrast. Enteric tubes are indicated for patients with impaired swallowing and for patients with neurological or other conditions associated with an increased risk of aspiration, or when the patient is unable to maintain adequate oral intake of fluid or calories. There are multiple types of enteric tubes, with their generic names assigned according to the insertion site and the gastrointestinal termination point. For instance, one of the common tube types is the nasogastric tube, which is inserted through a nostril and passed along the upper gastrointestinal tract into the stomach. When administering medications through an enteric tube, it is important to ensure that the tube terminates in the intended gastrointestinal location. When enteric tubes are initially placed, the position of the tube is verified by X-ray. However, due to gastric peristalsis, enteric tubes may migrate out of their intended


 Nursing Skills

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Preparing and Administering Topical Medications

JoVE 10259

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

Topical medications are applied directly to the body surfaces, including the skin and mucous membranes of the eyes, ears, nose, vagina, and rectum. There are many classes of topical medications, such as creams, ointments, lotions, patches, and aerosol sprays. Medications that are applied to the skin to produce slow, controlled, systemic effect are also referred to as transdermal. Transdermal absorption can be altered if lesions, burns, or breakdowns are present at the application site. Many transdermal medications are delivered via adhesive patch to achieve the slow, controlled, systemic effect. The patch should be applied to clean and hairless skin areas that do not undergo excessive movement, such as the back of the shoulder or thigh. Other topical creams or eye ointments should be applied according to the packaging and manufacturer instructions using an application device. When instilling eardrop medications, never occlude the ear canal, as this may increase pressure and rupture the ear drum. Medications that can be administered via a topical route include antibiotics, narcotics, hormones, and even chemotherapeutics. This requires adherence to the five "rights" of medicati


 Nursing Skills

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Preparing and Administering IV Push Medications

JoVE 10262

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

Intravenous (IV) push is the rapid administration of a small volume of medication into a patient's vein via a previously inserted IV catheter. Preparations for IV push administration are commonly provided in vials or ampules for withdrawal into a syringe. This method is used when a rapid response to a medication is required, or when the medication cannot be administered via the oral route. For instance, medications commonly administered via IV push are the ones used to treat moderate or severe pain. Before administrating IV push, it is important to confirm the correct placement of the IV catheter, because the push medication can cause irritation and damage to the lining of the blood vessel and to surrounding tissues. Since IV push medications act quickly, the patients need to be closely monitored after the drug has been administered, and any error can be especially dangerous. It is imperative that the nurse adheres to the five "rights" and three checks of safe medication administration and is knowledgeable about the medication purpose and adverse effects. The nurse should determine the appropriate medication dose, based upon the medication concentration in the container. If


 Nursing Skills

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Preparing and Administering Subcutaneous Medications

JoVE 10234

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

Subcutaneous medication administration is a parenteral approach to administer small amounts of medication (less than 2 mL) into the layer of tissue just below the skin. Common medications administered via the subcutaneous route include anticoagulant medications, such as heparin or enoxaparin; epinephrine administered for allergic reactions; insulin; and some immunizations. Subcutaneous injection preparations are commonly provided in vials or ampules for withdrawal into a subcutaneous syringe. Subcutaneous needles have a shorter length and smaller diameter than syringes used for intramuscular injections, are typically less than 5/8th of an inch, and are 26 gauge or smaller. Medication absorption and onset is slower than for intravenous routes, with some absorption rates lasting 24 h or longer. This approach is selected for many medications that may be denatured or deactivated if given via the oral route, given the acidity of the gastrointestinal tract. Subcutaneous injection preparations are commonly provided in vials or ampules for withdrawal into a subcutaneous syringe. The nurse should determine the appropriate medication dose according to


 Nursing Skills

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Preparing and Administering Oral Tablet and Liquid Medications

JoVE 10258

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

Oral medications are the route most preferred by patients and are one of the most commonly used routes of medication administration by providers. Most oral preparations are taken by mouth, swallowed with fluid, and absorbed via the gastrointestinal tract. Oral medications are available in solid forms (e.g., tablets, capsules, caplets, and enteric-coated tablets) and liquids forms (e.g., syrups, elixirs, spirits, and suspensions). Most oral medications have a slower onset of action and, in the case of liquids and swallowed oral medications, may also have a more prolonged effect. Enteric-coated tablets are covered with material that prevents dissolution and absorption until the tablet reaches the small intestine. Additional oral medication routes (not shown in this video) include sublingual administration, in which the preparation is placed under the tongue to dissolve, and buccal administration, which involves placing the medication in the cheek area between the gums and mucus membranes to dissolve. When preparing and administering oral tablets and liquid medications, the nurse must consider whether the medication is appropriate given the patient's medical conditi


 Nursing Skills

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