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Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.

Examination of Rapid Dopamine Dynamics with Fast Scan Cyclic Voltammetry During Intra-oral Tastant Administration in Awake Rats

1Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, Yale University, 2Department of Biotechnical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, 3Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, 4Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale School of Medicine

JoVE 52468


 Behavior

Preparing and Administering Oral Tablet and Liquid Medications

JoVE 10258

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

Oral medications are the route most preferred by patients and are one of the most commonly used routes of medication administration by providers. Most oral preparations are taken by mouth, swallowed with fluid, and absorbed via the gastrointestinal tract. Oral medications are available in solid forms (e.g., tablets, capsules, caplets, and enteric-coated tablets) and liquids forms (e.g., syrups, elixirs, spirits, and suspensions). Most oral medications have a slower onset of action and, in the case of liquids and swallowed oral medications, may also have a more prolonged effect. Enteric-coated tablets are covered with material that prevents dissolution and absorption until the tablet reaches the small intestine. Additional oral medication routes (not shown in this video) include sublingual administration, in which the preparation is placed under the tongue to dissolve, and buccal administration, which involves placing the medication in the cheek area between the gums and mucus membranes to dissolve. When preparing and administering oral tablets and liquid medications, the nurse must consider whether the medication is appropriate given the patient's medical conditi


 Essentials of Nursing Skills

Preparing and Administering Enteric Tube Medications

JoVE 10287

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

An enteric tube is a tube that is inserted and passed into the stomach or intestines. Enteric tubes serve multiple purposes, including stomach decompression (through the removal of air, gastric contents, and secretions), enteric feeding, and/or the administration of medications or oral contrast. Enteric tubes are indicated for patients with impaired swallowing and for patients with neurological or other conditions associated with an increased risk of aspiration, or when the patient is unable to maintain adequate oral intake of fluid or calories. There are multiple types of enteric tubes, with their generic names assigned according to the insertion site and the gastrointestinal termination point. For instance, one of the common tube types is the nasogastric tube, which is inserted through a nostril and passed along the upper gastrointestinal tract into the stomach. When administering medications through an enteric tube, it is important to ensure that the tube terminates in the intended gastrointestinal location. When enteric tubes are initially placed, the position of the tube is verified by X-ray. However, due to gastric peristalsis, enteric tubes may migrate out of their intended


 Essentials of Nursing Skills

Safety Checks and Five Rights of Medication Administration

JoVE 10235

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

According to the 1999 Institution of Medicine (IOM) report titled To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System, medication errors are significant contributors to avoidable patient deaths in the hospital environment. Therefore, to maintain patient safety and to avoid medication errors, it is important that every nurse adheres to at least five "rights" of safe medication administration. These five "rights" refer to the right patient, right medication, right medication dose, right time of administration, and right route of administration. The nurse should check for these five "rights" at three different checkpoints points in the mediation administration process: 1) while comparing the Medication Administration Record (MAR) when withdrawing medications, 2) while comparing the MAR to acquired medications, and 3) while comparing the MAR to both the medication and patient identifiers at the bedside. This video will demonstrate the acquisition component of medication administration, which consists of performing the five "rights" during the first, second, and third checkpoints. Prior to acquiring medications from a medication dispensing system (M


 Essentials of Nursing Skills

Compound Administration II

JoVE 10388

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

Compound administration is often an integral component of an animal study. Many factors need to be evaluated to ensure that the compound is delivered correctly. The route of administration affects the mechanisms of absorption. The characteristics of the substance to be introduced (the pH, viscosity, and concentration) may dictate which route of administration is selected.1,2,3


 Essentials of Lab Animal Research

Preparing and Administering IV Push Medications

JoVE 10262

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

Intravenous (IV) push is the rapid administration of a small volume of medication into a patient's vein via a previously inserted IV catheter. Preparations for IV push administration are commonly provided in vials or ampules for withdrawal into a syringe. This method is used when a rapid response to a medication is required, or when the medication cannot be administered via the oral route. For instance, medications commonly administered via IV push are the ones used to treat moderate or severe pain. Before administrating IV push, it is important to confirm the correct placement of the IV catheter, because the push medication can cause irritation and damage to the lining of the blood vessel and to surrounding tissues. Since IV push medications act quickly, the patients need to be closely monitored after the drug has been administered, and any error can be especially dangerous. It is imperative that the nurse adheres to the five "rights" and three checks of safe medication administration and is knowledgeable about the medication purpose and adverse effects. The nurse should determine the appropriate medication dose, based upon the medication concentration in the container. If


 Essentials of Nursing Skills

Studying the Hypothalamic Insulin Signal to Peripheral Glucose Intolerance with a Continuous Drug Infusion System into the Mouse Brain

1The Ph.D. Program for Neural Regenerative Medicine, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University and National Health Research, 2Graduate Institute of Neural Regenerative Medicine, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, 3TMU research center for Neurotrauma and Neuroregeneration, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56410


 JoVE In-Press

Preparing and Administering Intramuscular Injections

JoVE 10261

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

Intramuscular (IM) injections deposit medications deep into the muscle tissue. Since muscle fibers are well perfused, this route of administration provides quick uptake of the medication and allows for the administration of relatively large volumes. Skeletal muscles have fewer pain-sensing nerves than subcutaneous tissue, which allows for the less painful administration of irritating drugs (e.g., chlorpromazine, an anti-psychotic). IM injections are recommended for patients unable to take oral medications and for uncooperative patients. Some examples of medications that are commonly delivered by IM injections include antibiotics, hormones, and vaccinations. As in any other route of administration, the nurse must consider if the medication is appropriate, given the patient's medical conditions, allergies, and current clinical status. In addition, specifically for IM injections, it is important to assess the patient's muscle mass to determine the appropriate needle size. Also, if the patient has already received this injection, it is necessary to verify the injection site that was previously used and to ensure that the previous dose did not result in any adverse


 Essentials of Nursing Skills

Preparing and Administering Intermittent Intravenous Medications with an Infusion Pump

JoVE 10277

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

Primary intermittent intravenous (IV) infusions are delivered alone as volume-controlled infusions, while secondary infusions are delivered with another IV fluid, usually maintenance fluids. Intermittent infusions are delivered over a specific amount of time, which is dictated by the type of medication, such as IV antibiotics. High-volume IV medications, anywhere from 50- to 500-mL infusions, are typically delivered using an infusion pump as either primary or secondary infusions. Infusion pumps deliver IV fluids in a volume-controlled manner, keeping medication side effects to a minimum and helping to prevent nurse medication errors. Careful review of the medication compatibility with maintenance fluids using an approved medication drug guide, pharmacy recommendations in the Medication Administration Record (MAR), and physician orders must be assessed prior to delivering an IV medication. This review will determine if primary or secondary delivery is appropriate based on the risk for patient harm, such as for concentrated electrolyte preparations like potassium. Certain medical conditions that preclude oral fluid intake, specific medication preparations, or situations that require an inc


 Essentials of Nursing Skills

Preparing and Administering Secondary Intermittent Intravenous Medications

JoVE 10288

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

Secondary intravenous (IV) infusions are a way to administer smaller volume-controlled amounts of IV solution (25-250 mL). Secondary IV infusions are delivered over longer periods of time than IV push medications, which reduces the risks associated with rapid infusions, such as phlebitis and infiltration. In addition, some antibiotic medications are only stable for a limited time in solution. The secondary IV medication tubing is connected to the primary macrobore (large internal diameter) IV tubing and is therefore "secondary" to the primary infusion. The secondary solution bag is typically hung higher than the primary infusion bag and is subsequently "piggybacked" on top of the primary IV infusion. This higher position places greater gravitational pressure on the secondary IV solution. As a result, the primary infusion is temporarily paused until the secondary infusion volume has been delivered. This approach ensures that the medication is completely infused due to an immediate return of maintenance IV infusion in the IV line. The secondary IV infusion can be safely delivered when the patient's fluid volume status permits temporarily pausing the delivery of maintenance fluid and in hype


 Essentials of Nursing Skills

Preparing and Administering Subcutaneous Medications

JoVE 10234

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

Subcutaneous medication administration is a parenteral approach to administer small amounts of medication (less than 2 mL) into the layer of tissue just below the skin. Common medications administered via the subcutaneous route include anticoagulant medications, such as heparin or enoxaparin; epinephrine administered for allergic reactions; insulin; and some immunizations. Subcutaneous injection preparations are commonly provided in vials or ampules for withdrawal into a subcutaneous syringe. Subcutaneous needles have a shorter length and smaller diameter than syringes used for intramuscular injections, are typically less than 5/8th of an inch, and are 26 gauge or smaller. Medication absorption and onset is slower than for intravenous routes, with some absorption rates lasting 24 h or longer. This approach is selected for many medications that may be denatured or deactivated if given via the oral route, given the acidity of the gastrointestinal tract. Subcutaneous injection preparations are commonly provided in vials or ampules for withdrawal into a subcutaneous syringe. The nurse should determine the appropriate medication dose according to


 Essentials of Nursing Skills

Initiating Maintenance IV Fluids

JoVE 10274

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

Hospitalized patients frequently require the administration of intravenous (IV) fluids to maintain their fluid and electrolyte balance. Certain medical conditions that preclude oral fluid intake may necessitate IV fluid administration, with or without electrolytes, to prevent hypovolemia, dehydration, and electrolyte imbalances. Pre-surgical and pre-procedure patients who require anesthesia are often required to be NPO (i.e., nil per os; Latin for "nothing by mouth") to prevent aspiration and to maintain hydration during the procedure. Post-surgical and post-procedure patients may also require IV fluid administration to increase intravascular volume following surgical blood loss. IV fluids can be delivered by different types of administrations sets: gravity flow infusion devices, which rely on gravitation force to push the fluid to the patient's bloodstream, or infusion pumps, which use a pump mechanism that generates positive pressure. While administering maintenance IV fluids using an infusion pump is the most common approach, facility policy; availability of infusion pump equipment; and other limitations, such as a power outage, may necessitate the use of IV gravity tub


 Essentials of Nursing Skills

Compound Administration I

JoVE 10198

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

As many research protocols require that a substance be injected into an animal, the route of delivery and the amount of the substance must be accurately determined. There are several routes of administration available in the mouse and rat. Which route to use is determined by several factors of the substance to be injected: the pH of the solution, the volume required for the desired dosage, and the viscosity of the solution. Severe tissue damage can occur if a substance is administered incorrectly. This video looks at the various restraint methods and technical details for the most commonly used injection routes.


 Essentials of Lab Animal Research

Simultaneous Detection of c-Fos Activation from Mesolimbic and Mesocortical Dopamine Reward Sites Following Naive Sugar and Fat Ingestion in Rats

1Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Cluster, Psychology Doctoral Program, The Graduate Center, CUNY, New York, NY, 2Department of Psychology, Queens College, CUNY, Flushing, NY, 3Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Cluster, Psychology Doctoral Program, The Graduate Center, CUNY, Flushing, NY

JoVE 53897


 Neuroscience

Operating Procedures of the Electrochemotherapy for Treatment of Tumor in Dogs and Cats

1Clinic for Surgery and Small Animals, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, 2Department of Experimental Oncology, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Primorska, 4IPBS (Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale), CNRS, 5IPBS (Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale), Université de Toulouse

JoVE 54760


 Cancer Research

Discontinuing Intravenous Fluids and a Peripheral Intravenous Line

JoVE 10278

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

Intravenous (IV) fluid administration and peripheral IV catheters (PIVs) may be discontinued for a number of reasons. The most common reason for discontinuing IV fluids is that the patient has returned to normal body fluid volume (euvolemia) and is able to maintain adequate oral fluid intake or is being discharged from the hospital. In addition, the Centers for Disease Control Guidelines for the Prevention of Intravascular Catheter-Related Infections (2011) recommends replacing PIVs every 72-96 h in adults to prevent the risk of infection or phlebitis. If the PIV becomes dislodged or if the insertion site demonstrates the signs and symptoms of infection, infiltration, extravasation, or phlebitis, the PIV should be discontinued and replaced. For pediatric patients, the Infusion Nurses Society recommends replacing the PIV only when the IV infusion site is no longer patent or when it demonstrates the signs and symptoms of complications. This video describes the approach to discontinue IV fluid administration and PIVs.


 Essentials of Nursing Skills

Ultrasound-guided Botulinum Toxin-A Injections: A Method of Treating Sialorrhea

1Clinical and Biological Sciences Department, Neurology Unit, University of Torino, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, 2Oncology Department, Radiology Unit, University of Torino, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, 3Clinical and Biological Sciences Department, Dietologic and Nutrition Unit, University of Torino, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital

JoVE 54606


 Medicine

Quantification of the Immunosuppressant Tacrolimus on Dried Blood Spots Using LC-MS/MS

1iC42 Clinical Research and Development, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, 2Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Center of Drug Evaluation Research - Office of Generic Drugs, 4Transplant Clinical Research, University of Cincinnati

JoVE 52424


 Medicine

Semiautomated Longitudinal Microcomputed Tomography-based Quantitative Structural Analysis of a Nude Rat Osteoporosis-related Vertebral Fracture Model

1Skeletal Biotech Laboratory, Hebrew University-Hadassah Faculty of Dental Medicine, 2Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 3Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 4Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 5Department of Orthopedics, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 55928


 JoVE In-Press

Non-restraining EEG Radiotelemetry: Epidural and Deep Intracerebral Stereotaxic EEG Electrode Placement

1Department of Neuropsychopharmacology, Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (Bundesinstitut für Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte, BfArM), 2Molecular and Cellular Cognition Lab, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (Deutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen, DZNE)

JoVE 54216


 Neuroscience

Using Multi-fluorinated Bile Acids and In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Measure Bile Acid Transport

1Department of Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 2Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Radiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 4Food and Drug Administration, 5Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, 6VA Maryland Health Care System

JoVE 54597


 Medicine

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