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Antigenic Variation: Change in the surface Antigen of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with Influenza viruses, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain Parasites, especially trypanosomes, Plasmodium, and Borrelia, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)

Cross-reactivity

JoVE 10900

The ability of a single antibody to recognize multiple structurally similar epitopes is an important immune defense strategy that enables the host to efficiently defend against many potentially threatening pathogens. However, cross-reactivity also elicits allergy symptoms against related allergens. It is increasingly important to understand the principles of cross-reactivity, as antibodies are actively being developed as therapeutic modalities for diverse diseases, including cancer. Antibodies can initiate an immune response by binding to specific structures on the surface of pathogens or other foreign elements. By definition, anything that is bound by an antibody, and subsequently elicits an immune response, is called an antigen. Often, antigens are proteins on the surface of viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoan invaders. The specific sequence of amino acids that is recognized by the antibody is called an epitope. Most epitopes are only 5-6 amino acids long. As such, a single antigen may present several distinct epitopes. Cross-reactivity occurs when two distinct epitopes are structurally similar, and hence are recognized by the same antibody. A major benefit of antibody cross-reactivity is that it provides cross-protective immunity to related pathogens. When a circulating antibody recognizes a viral or bacterial pathogen that it has encountered previ

 Core: Immune System

Generation of Escape Variants of Neutralizing Influenza Virus Monoclonal Antibodies

1Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 2Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 3The Department of Medicine, Section of Rheumatology, The Knapp Center for Lupus and Immunology Research, The University of Chicago

JoVE 56067

 Immunology and Infection

Use of an Influenza Antigen Microarray to Measure the Breadth of Serum Antibodies Across Virus Subtypes

1Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California Irvine Health, 2Vaccine Research and Development Center, Department of Physiology, University of California Irvine

JoVE 59973

 Immunology and Infection

Analysis of Single-cell Gene Transcription by RNA Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH)

1Centre for Medical Parasitology, Department of International Health, Immunology & Microbiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital (Rigshospitalet), 3Institute of Infection and Immunology Research, School of Biology, University of Edinburgh

JoVE 4073

 Biology
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