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Aquaporin 2: Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in Kidney collecting ducts. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical Plasma membrane is regulated by Vasopressin, and Mutations in Aqp2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including Diabetes insipidus.

Endocrine Signaling

JoVE 10719

Endocrine cells produce hormones to communicate with remote target cells found in other organs. The hormone reaches these distant areas using the circulatory system. This exposes the whole organism to the hormone but only those cells expressing hormone receptors or target cells are affected. Thus, endocrine signaling induces slow responses from its target cells but these effects also last longer. There are two types of endocrine receptors: cell surface receptors and intracellular receptors. Cell surface receptors work similarly to other membrane bound receptors. Hormones, the ligand, bind to a hormone specific G-protein coupled receptor. This initiates conformational changes in the receptor, releasing a subunit of the G-protein. The protein activates second messengers which internalize the message by triggering signaling cascades and transcription factors. Many hormones work through cell surface receptors, including epinephrine, norepinephrine, insulin, prostaglandins, prolactin, and growth hormones. Steroid hormones, like testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone, transmit signals using intracellular receptors. These hormones are small hydrophobic molecules so they move directly past the outer cell membrane. Once inside, and if that cell is a target cell, the hormone binds to its receptor. Binding creates a conformational change in the receptor

 Core: Cell Signaling

Optical Clearing and Imaging of Immunolabeled Kidney Tissue

1Division of Nephrology and Clinical Immunology, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, 2III. Department of Medicine, University Medical Center, Hamburg-Eppendorf, 3Department of Nephrology, Monash Health, 4Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Oregon Health and Science University, 5Renal Section, Veterans Affairs Portland Health Care System, 6Fondation LeDucq Transatlantic Networks of Excellence, 7Department of Internal Medicine, Nephrology and Transplantation, Erasmus Medical Center

JoVE 60002

 Medicine
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